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中古英语

(重定向自中古英語

中古英语是指1066年到1489年间所使用的英语。这个时期的英语和古英语相比,在读音拼写词汇语法方面都产生了较大的变化。一大部分古英语词汇被淘汰,转而吸收了很多法语拉丁语的词汇。

中古英语
Middle English
区域 英格蘭蘇格蘭
語言滅亡 在16世紀發展至早期現代英語蘇格蘭語
語系
語言代碼
ISO 639-2 enm
ISO 639-3 enm

语法编辑

中古英语的语法在形态变化方面发生了简化。名词逐渐失去了古英语复杂的数和格的变化,简化成了单数复数两种形式,复数以词尾-s表示。形容词则简化成了没有任何变化的词类。

词在句子中的关系不再通过性、数、格的变化来表示,而是由词在句子中的位置来表示。

發音编辑

相對於語法上的諸多改變,中古英文在發音上,比起古英文卻沒有太大的變化,仍舊是近似德語的發音方式。

词汇编辑

中古英语吸收了大量法语的词汇,数目有几千之多。此外,中古英语还吸收了拉丁语、佛兰芒语荷兰语低地德语的一些词汇。同时,大量古英语的词汇由于不再使用而被淘汰。

中古英语文选编辑

下文載自《坎特伯雷故事集》(The Canterbury Tales),喬叟著,14世紀

First 18 lines of the General Prologue
中古英语原文 现代英语直译[1]
Whan that Aprill, with his shoures soote When [that] April with his showers sweet
The droȝte of March hath perced to the roote The drought of March has pierced to the root
And bathed every veyne in swich licour, And bathed every vein in such liquor,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour; Of which virtue engendered is the flower;
Whan Zephirus eek with his sweete breeth When Zephyrus eke with his sweet breath
Inspired hath in every holt and heeth Inspired has in every holt and heath,
The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne The tender crops; and the young sun
Hath in the Ram his halfe cours yronne, Has in the Ram his half-course run,
And smale foweles maken melodye, And small fowls make melody,
That slepen al the nyght with open ye That sleep all the night with open eye
(So priketh hem Nature in hir corages); (So pricks them Nature in their courages);
Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages Then folk long to go on pilgrimages
And palmeres for to seken straunge strondes And palmers [for] to seek strange strands
To ferne halwes, kowthe in sondry londes; To far-off hallows, couth in sundry lands;
And specially from every shires ende And, especially, from every shire's end
Of Engelond, to Caunterbury they wende, Of England, to Canterbury they wend,
The hooly blisful martir for to seke The holy blissful martyr [for] to seek,
That hem hath holpen, whan that they were seeke. That them has helped, when [that] they were sick.

参看编辑

參考資料编辑

  1. ^ This Wikipedia translation closely mirrors the translation found here: Canterbury Tales (selected). Translated by Vincent Foster Hopper revised. Barron's Educational Series. 1970: 2. ISBN 9780812000399. 

外部链接编辑