中国-塔吉克斯坦边界

中国-塔吉克斯坦边界长度477 km(296 mi)[1]位于中国新疆与塔吉克斯坦的戈尔诺-巴达赫尚自治州穆尔加布区英语Murghob District之间。[2]

塔吉克斯坦地图,右侧为与中国的边界

历史编辑

 
中国塔吉克斯坦边界上的设施
 
中国塔吉克斯坦边界谈判结果

1864年俄罗斯帝国与清朝签订的《塔城界约[3][4][5][6][4],规定中俄边界“行至葱岭,靠浩罕界为界”,实际上未涉及塔吉克地段的边界。1881年签订的《中俄伊犁条约》规定中俄两国在帕米尔的边界线“照两国现管之界勘定”。1884年勘界和签订《中俄续勘喀什噶尔界约[4][4],中俄两国在帕米尔地区分界线的起点从帕米尔北部的阿赖岭移到了东北部的乌孜别里山口并规定从乌孜别里山口往南,“俄国界线转向西南,中国界线一直往南”,中间形成一块“待议区”。大英帝国与俄罗斯帝国争夺中亚控制之大博弈,1890年签订英俄协定。1891年沙俄出兵帕米尔进入“待议区”。1892年进入“中国界线一直往南”这条中国边界以东的中国领土。1895年3月11日,英俄签订了《关于帕米尔地区势力范围的协议》[4],划定两国在帕米尔的势力分界线,将兴都库什山北麓与帕米尔南缘之间的狭长地带划作两国间的隔离带,这条缓冲地带就是瓦罕走廊。1895年7月俄英两国开始在帕米尔地区进行勘界活动。清政府在帕米尔划界问题上坚持原则立场:帕米尔属于中国,不承认沙俄派兵强占并同英国瓜分帕米尔的行为。

1999年中华人民共和国和塔吉克斯坦共和国签署了《中华人民共和国和塔吉克斯坦共和国关于中塔国界的协定》,划分了乌孜别里山口以北的中国塔吉克斯坦边界。[7]2000年7月,中塔吉三国签署了《中塔吉关于三国国界交界点的协定》。2002年5月27日签订《中华人民共和国和塔吉克斯坦共和国关于中塔国界的补充协定》,划分了乌孜别里山口以南的中国塔吉克斯坦边界。2011年塔吉克斯坦议会批准了1999年与2002年的两个边界协定。[8]

地理编辑

中塔国界第四号界点(位于玛尔坎苏河水流中心线)是中国最西端

阿富汗-中国-塔吉克斯坦三国国界交界点英语List of tripoints为海拔5698m的克克拉去考勒峰[9][10][11][12](苏联地图为海拔5518.5m的波瓦洛--什韦科夫斯基峰[13])。这也是阿富汗的最东点英语Extreme points of Afghanistan

中塔边界的唯一公路口岸为库利马口岸,中方称卡拉苏口岸,阔勒买达坂海拔4,362.7米(14,313英尺)。[14]

历史上,更南的奈扎塔什山隘英语Nezatash Pass(海拔4476米)与克克敖吊克达坂英语Beyik Pass(苏联称别伊克山口,海拔4742.0米)也可以翻越萨雷阔勒岭

中塔边界西北部的通道有乌孜别里山口[9][15][16](苏联称Pereval Kyzyl-Dzhiik[17][18])等。

地图编辑

以下为20世纪中叶中苏国界塔吉克地段的地图:

參見编辑

注释编辑

  1. ^ From map: "DELINEATION OF INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES MUST NOT BE CONSIDERED AUTHORITATIVE"
  2. ^ From map: "NAMES AND BOUNDARY REPRESENTATION ARE NOT NECESSARILY AUTHORITATIVE"
  3. ^ From map: "The representation of international boundaries is not necessarily authoritative."
  4. ^ From map: "The representation of international boundaries is not necessarily authoritative"
  5. ^ From map: "The representation of international boundaries is not necessarily authoritative"
  6. ^ From map: "THE REPRESENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES IS NOT NECESSARILY AUTHORITATIVE."
  7. ^ From map: "BOUNDARY REPRESENTATION IS NOT NECESSARILY AUTHORITATIVE."

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ FIELD LISTING :: LAND BOUNDARIES. The World Factbook. [30 January 2020]. China total: 22,457 km border countries (15):{...}Tajikistan 477 km, {...}Tajikistan total: 4,130 km border countries (4): {...}China 477 km, {... }
  2. ^ CIA World Factbook - Tajikistan, 23 September 2018 
  3. ^ Articles 2 and 3 in the Russian text of the treaty
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 International Boundary Study No. 64 – China-USSR Boundary (PDF), 13 February 1978 [23 September 2018] 
  5. ^ (See the map)
  6. ^ The Lost Frontier: the treaty maps that changed Qing's northwestern boundaries. [2020-03-06]. (原始内容存档于2015-03-13). 
  7. ^ 中华人民共和国和塔吉克斯坦共和国关于中塔国界的协定. 全国人大. 人大公报. 
  8. ^ Alex Sodiqov. Tajikistan cedes disputed land to China. Eurasia Daily Monitor (Jamestown Foundation). 24 January 2011, 8 (16) [23 September 2018]. On January 12, the lower house of the Tajik parliament voted to ratify the 2002 border demarcation agreement, handing over 1,122 square kilometers (433 square miles) of mountainous land in the remote Pamir Mountains (www.asiaplus.tj, January 12). The ceded land represents about 0.8 percent of the country’s total area of 143,100 square kilometers (55,250 square miles).{...}At the time of independence, Tajikistan inherited three disputed border segments, constituting about 28,500 square kilometers (11,000 square miles), which China and the Soviet Union had been unable to resolve. In 1999, Tajikistan and China signed a border demarcation agreement, defining the border in two of the three segments. Under the 1999 deal, Dushanbe ceded about 200 square kilometers (77 square miles) of land to Beijing (http://www.ca-oasis.info/oasis/?jrn=109&id=817). 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 China Report Political, Sociological and Military Affaris No. 363 (PDF). United States Joint Publications Research Service: 1. 18 November 1982 [11 January 2020]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2020-01-11) –通过Defense Technical Information Center. If we open up the Atlas of the People's Republic of China we will find that the region of the Pamir, the western extremity of Xinjiang, from the Wuzibieli [Uzbel] Pass1 to the south down to the Kekelaqukaole Peak (which the Soviet Russians call "Pavel Shveikovsky Peak") is designated as a not limited area. 
  10. ^ 阿富汗. State Ethnic Affairs Commission. 6 July 2004. (原始内容存档于4 December 2008) (中文(简体)). 中阿边界{...}南起中、巴、阿3国交界处的5587山峰,沿穆斯塔格山脉分水岭北行至克克拉去考勒峰。 
  11. ^ Kamoludin Abdullaev. Historical Dictionary of Tajikistan 3. Rowman & Littlefield. 2018: 92. ISBN 9781538102527 –通过Google Books. CHINA-TAJIK BORDER.{...}This mountainous boundary runs along the Sarikol mountain range in eastern Tajikistan, reaching in Pamir the Afghan border英语Afghanistan-Tajikistan border at the Povalo-Shveikovskogo peak (5,543 meters above sea level). 
  12. ^ NJ 43 Su-fu [U.S.S.R., China, Afghanistan, Pakistan, State of Jammu and Kashmir] Series 1301, Edition 5-AMS. Washington, D. C.: Army Map Service. March 1967 [2020-03-06]. (原始内容存档于2019-10-13) –通过Perry–Castañeda Library Map Collection (英语). Pik Povalo-Shveikovskogo 
  13. ^ 中华人民共和国和阿富汗王国边界条约. 22 November 1963 [2020-12-12]. (原始内容存档于2020-11-04) –通过Wikisource (中文). 到高程为5698米的克克拉去考勒峰(阿方图称波万洛什维科夫斯基峰)。 
  14. ^ Caravanistan - Tajikistan border crossings, [23 September 2018], (原始内容存档于2020-07-01) 
  15. ^ 夏征农; 陈至立 (编). 辞海:第六版彩图本 [Cihai (Sixth Edition in Color)]. 上海. Shanghai: 上海辞书出版社. Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. September 2009: 2187. ISBN 9787532628599 (中文). 乌孜别里山口 
  16. ^ Uzbel Shankou (Approved - N)位于GEOnet名称服务的结果, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  17. ^ Pereval Kyzyl-Dzhiik (Approved - N)位于GEOnet名称服务的结果, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  18. ^ China-USSR border, western sector.. [2020-03-06]. (原始内容存档于2020-01-16) –通过Library of Congress. Wu-tzu-pieh-li Shan-k'ou (Pereval Kyzyl-Dzhiik)