打开主菜单

保羅·里維爾(英語:Paul Revere/rɪˈvɪər/,1735年1月1日-1818年5月10日)是美國麻塞諸塞州波士頓銀匠、實業家,也是美國獨立戰爭時期的一名愛國者。保羅·里維爾是位傑出的軍人,他協助組建一個對英軍的情報與警報系統。他最著名的事蹟是在列克星敦和康科德战役前夜警告民軍方面,英軍即將來襲。此事件如同亨利·沃茲沃思·朗費羅的讚美詩《保羅·里維爾騎馬來英语Paul Revere's Ride》一樣具有戲劇性。

保羅·里維爾
J S Copley - Paul Revere.jpg
出生 1735年1月1日(美國舊曆英语Old Style and New Style dates為1734年12月21日)
英屬美洲麻薩諸塞灣省波士頓北區英语North End, Boston
逝世 1818年5月10日
 美國麻塞諸塞州波士頓
职业 銀匠、瞬息民兵軍官
签名
Paul Revere signature.svg

1775年4月18日晚間,里維爾請麻薩諸塞灣省老北教堂的司事勞伯·紐曼(Robert Newman)和民軍上尉約翰·普林(John Pulling)各帶一盞燈上到小北教堂的尖頂懸掛,因為他和河口對岸的查爾斯頓的民軍約好:「掛一盞是陸軍,掛兩盞是海軍(One if by land, two if by sea)。」用以警示英軍出動收繳民軍武器的行動方式。掛燈後里維爾和其他民兵也快馬趕往更遠的列克星敦跟當地同志親自報信,另一批人則快馬前往康科德報信。

里維爾稍後擔任麻塞諸塞民兵軍官,直到佩諾布斯科特遠征英语Penobscot Expedition後,才解甲歸田。這場戰役後,里維爾重拾他的銀匠與鑄造生意,並將利潤投注在鑄鐵、鑄銅鈴、鑄炮與鍛造銅螺絲、長釘上,生意相當成功。最後,在1800年他成為美國第一位成功製作銅片作為軍艦防護板的人。

參考文獻编辑

  • Alexander, John. Samuel Adams: America's Revolutionary Politician. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. 2002. ISBN 9780742521148. 
  • Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. Library of Military History. New York: David McKay. 1975 [1964]. ISBN 978-0-618-00194-1. 
  • Brooks, Victor. The Boston Campaign: April 1775–March 1776. Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: Combined Publishing. 1999. ISBN 978-0-585-23453-3. 
  • Drake, Samuel Adams. Historic Mansions and Highways Around Boston. Boston: Little, Brown. 1899. OCLC 1838072. 
  • Falino, Jeannine. "The Pride Which Pervades thro every Class": The Customers of Paul Revere. Boston, Massachusetts: University Press of Virginia. 2001. 
  • Federhen, Deborah. From Artisan to Entrepreneur: Paul Revere's Silver Shop Operation. Boston, Massachusetts: Paul Revere Memorial Association. 1988. 
  • Fischer, David Hackett. Paul Revere's ride. New York: Oxford University Press. 1994. ISBN 0-19-508847-6.  This work is extensively footnoted, and contains a voluminous list of primary resources concerning all aspects of the Revere's ride and the battles at Lexington and Concord.
  • Forbes, Esther. Paul Revere and the World He Lived in. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1999 [1942]. ISBN 978-0-618-00194-1. 
  • Gettemy, Charles. The True Story of Paul Revere. Boston: Little, Brown. 1905. OCLC 1375230. 
  • Goss, Elbridge Henry. The Life of Colonel Paul Revere. Boston: J. G. Cupples. 1891. OCLC 3589045. Volume 2
  • Ketchum, Robert. Decisive Day: The Battle For Bunker Hill. New York: Henry Holt and Co. 1999 [1974]. ISBN 9780805060997. 
  • Martello, Robert. Midnight Ride, Industrial Dawn: Paul Revere and the Growth of American Enterprise. Johns Hopkins Studies in the History of Technology. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. 2010. 
  • McDonald, Forrest; McDonald, Ellen. The Ethnic Origins of the American People, 1790. The William and Mary Quarterly. Third. April 1980, 37 (2): 179–199. JSTOR 1919495. 
  • McNamara, John. History in Asphalt: The Origin of Bronx Street and Place Names, Borough of the Bronx, New York City. Fleischmanns, New York: Harbor Hill Books. 1978. 
  • Miller, Joel J. The Revolutionary Paul Revere. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson. 2010. ISBN 978-1-59555-074-3. 
  • Murrin, John M.; 等. Liberty, Equality, Power: A History of the American People, Volume I: To 1877. Florence, Kentucky: Wadsworth–Thomson Learning. 2002 [1996]. 
  • Paul Revere, Artisan, Businessman and Patriot: The Man Behind the Myth. Boston: Paul Revere Memorial Association (PRMA). 1988. 
  • 保羅·里維爾. Paul Revere's Three Accounts of His Famous Ride. Introduction by Edmund Morgan. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society. 1961. ISBN 978-0-9619999-0-2. 
  • Ruland, Richard; Bradbury, Malcolm. From Puritanism to Postmodernism: A History of American Literature. New York: Viking. 1991. 
  • Schmidt, Leah A. Revere Beach. Mount Pleasant, SC: Arcadia Publishing. 2002. ISBN 978-0-7385-1030-9. 
  • Steblecki, Edith J. Paul Revere and Freemasonry. Boston: Paul Revere Memorial Association (PRMA). 1985. OCLC 17485269. 
  • Triber, Jayne. A True Republican: The Life of Paul Revere. Amherst, Massachusetts: 麻薩諸塞大學出版社英语University of Massachusetts Press. 1998. ISBN 978-1-55849-139-7. 
  • United States, National Archives and Records Service. Papers of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789. National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration. 
  • Upham, Warren. Minnesota Geographic Names: Their Origin and Historic Significance. St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society. 1920. OCLC 34232868. 
  • Waters, Deborah Dependahl. A Handsome Cupboard of Plate: Early American Silver in the Cahn Collection. Cambridge, England: John Adamson. 2013. ISBN 978-1-898565-11-6. 

外部連結编辑