催眠治療

催眠治療法是一种替代醫學。催眠療法使用催眠术,催眠是使用暗示等方法,包括言語的暗示、環境的暗示,使被催眠者進入放鬆、專注、注意力高度集中的類似睡眠卻並非睡眠的狀態。在催眠的過程中,會使用暗示和指导性的意象,讓受助者处理各种身心的問題。

各種治療方法编辑

传统催眠疗法编辑

认知/行为催眠疗法编辑

正念催眠疗法编辑

實際治療用途编辑

戒煙编辑

在戒烟方面,催眠疗法比其他預防及治療措施,在治療六個月後的成功戒烟率更高。 [1]

分娩编辑

催眠疗法,可適用于分娩过程和产后護理[2] [3][4] [5] [6]。目前仍未有足够的证据来确定它是否可以减轻分娩时的疼痛[7]和有效地预防产后抑郁症。 [8]在2012年前,學界沒有對此方法进行过深入的研究。但是,在2013年进行的研究发现:“在分娩中使用催眠会导致药理镇痛和催产素的使用减少,从而缩短了第一产程的持续时间”。 [9] 2013年,在丹麦进行了研究,得出的结论是:“自我催眠课程可改善妇女的分娩体验,并减少恐惧感”。 [10] 2015年,一组研究人员在英国进行了类似的研究:“自我催眠的积极经历给人以镇静,自信和增强分娩的感觉”。 [11]催眠术被凯特米德尔顿(Kate Middleton)等名星使用。 [12]

其他用途编辑

在许多其他医学领域中,也有應用催眠學 [13]。在维多利亚时代,催眠用于治疗了当时被称为歇斯底里的疾病。 [14]

现代催眠疗法已被广泛接受,特別是用于治疗某些习惯性疾病,如控制不合理的恐惧[15] [16]以及治疗失眠[17]成瘾等病症。 [18]催眠术也已用于加强恢復非心理的病徵,例如手术后[19]乳腺癌护理[20]甚至是肠胃疾病[21],包括大腸激躁症[22] [23]

參考编辑

  1. ^ Abbot, NC; Stead, LF; White, AR; Barnes, J. Jo , 编. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2005, (2): CD001008. PMID 10796583. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001008. 
  2. ^ Mongan, Marie F. HypnoBirthing: The Mongan Method: A Natural Approach To A Safe, Easier, More Comfortable Birthing 3rd. HCI. 2005. 
  3. ^ Sanjay Datta, Bhavani Shankar Kodali, Scott Segal. Non-pharmacological Methods for Relief of Labor Pain. Obstetric Anesthesia Handbook. 2010: 85–93. ISBN 978-0-387-88601-5. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-88602-2_7. 
  4. ^ Phillips-Moore, J. HypnoBirthing. TheAustralian Journal of Holistic Nursing. 2005, 12 (1): 41–2 [22 September 2012]. PMID 19175270. 
  5. ^ Wainer, N. HypnoBirthing. A radical change on our perspective of pain in childbirth.. Midwifery Today with International Midwife. 2000, (55): 36–38. PMID 11189565. 
  6. ^ Mottershead, N. Hypnosis: removing the labour from birth.. The Practising Midwife. March 2006, 9 (3): 26–7, 29. PMID 16562656. 
  7. ^ Jones, L.; Othman, M.; Dowswell, T.; Alfirevic, Z.; Gates, S.; Newburn, M.; Jordan, S.; Lavender, T.; Neilson, J. P. James P , 编. Pain management for women in labour: an overview of systematic reviews. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2012, 3 (3): CD009234. PMC 7132546 . PMID 22419342. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009234.pub2. 
  8. ^ Sado, M.; Ota, E.; Stickley, A.; Mori, R. Mitsuhiro , 编. Hypnosis during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postnatal period for preventing postnatal depression. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2012, 6 (6): CD009062. PMID 22696381. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009062.pub2. 
  9. ^ Kenyon, S; Armstrong, N; Johnston, T; Walkinshaw, S; Petrou, S; Howman, A; Cheed, V; Markham, C; McNicol, S. Standard- or high-dose oxytocin for nulliparous women with confirmed delay in labour: quantitative and qualitative results from a pilot randomised controlled trial. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2013-06-21, 120 (11): 1403–1412. ISSN 1470-0328. PMID 23786339. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.12331. 
  10. ^ Werner, Anette; Uldbjerg, Niels; Zachariae, Robert; Wu, Chun Sen; Nohr, Ellen A. Antenatal Hypnosis Training and Childbirth Experience: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Birth. December 2013, 40 (4): 272–280. PMID 24344708. doi:10.1111/birt.12071 (英语). 
  11. ^ Finlayson, Kenneth; Downe, Soo; Hinder, Susan; Carr, Helen; Spiby, Helen; Whorwell, Peter. Unexpected consequences: women's experiences of a self-hypnosis intervention to help with pain relief during labour. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. December 2015, 15 (1): 229. ISSN 1471-2393. PMC 4583759 . PMID 26407981. doi:10.1186/s12884-015-0659-0 (英语). 
  12. ^ Miller, Anna Medaris. Kate Middleton said she used hypnobirthing techniques to get through labor — and she 'really quite enjoyed it'. Insider. [2020-06-03]. 
  13. ^ Savage, George Harvey. The Harveian Oration on Experimental Psychology and Hypnotism Delivered before the Royal College of Physicians of London, October 18, 1909. London: Henry Frowde. 1909. OL 26297021M. 
  14. ^ Crimlisk, Helen L.; Ron, Maria A. Conversion hysteria: History, diagnostic issues, and clinical practice. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry. 1999, 4 (3): 165–180. doi:10.1080/135468099395909. 
  15. ^ Crawford, Helen J.; Barabasz, Arreed F.; Lynn. Rhue, Steven Jay , 编. Handbook of clinical hypnosis. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. 1993: 311–337. ISBN 978-1-55798-440-1. doi:10.1037/10274-015. 
  16. ^ Gow, M. A. Hypnosis with a 31-year-old female with dental phobia requiring emergency extraction (PDF). Contemporary Hypnosis. 2006, 23 (2): 83–91. doi:10.1002/ch.312. 
  17. ^ Deirdre Barrett. The pregnant man: tales from a hypnotherapist's couch. New York: Times Books. 1998. ISBN 9780812929058. 
  18. ^ Hypnosis as an addiction treatment. Alcohol Rehab Thailand. 
  19. ^ Diamond, S.G.; Davis, O.C.; Schaechter, J.D.; Howe, R.D. Hypnosis for rehabilitation after stroke: Six case studies (PDF). Contemporary Hypnosis. 2006, 23 (4): 173–180. doi:10.1002/ch.319. 
  20. ^ Hypnosis in breast cancer care: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Integrative Cancer Therapies (review). September 2014, 14 (1): 5–15. PMID 25233905. doi:10.1177/1534735414550035.  无效|subscription=free (帮助)
  21. ^ Palsson, O.S. Effects of hypnosis on GI problems (PDF). UNCCenter for Functional GI & Motility Disorders. 
  22. ^ Tan, Gabriel; Hammond, D. Corydon; Gurrala, Joseph. Hypnosis and irritable bowel syndrome: a review of efficacy and mechanism of action. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. 2005, 47 (3): 161–178. PMID 15754863. doi:10.1080/00029157.2005.10401481. 
  23. ^ Whorwell, P.J. The history of hypnotherapy and its role in the irritable bowel syndrome (PDF). Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2005, 22 (11–12): 1061–1067. Bibcode:10.1.1.616.6402 请检查|bibcode=值 (帮助). PMID 16305719. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2005.02697.x. 

參見编辑