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克里语英文:Cree language,平原克里語:Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ)是一系列联系密切的阿尔冈昆语族方言连续体。主要使用在加拿大北部,使用人数约117,000人,是加拿大使用人数最多的原住民语言。克里语与其他八种美洲原住民语言在加拿大西北地区拥有官方语言地位。

克里语
母语国家和地区 加拿大
母语使用人数 117,410(包括以下九个方言)[1](日期不详)
語系
文字 拉丁字母克里语音节文字(和因紐特語文字相似)
官方地位
作为官方语言 加拿大西北地区
語言代碼
ISO 639-1 cr
ISO 639-2 cre
ISO 639-3 分別為:
cre-克里语(统称)
nsk-Naskapi克里语
moe-Leluwewn-Nehilawewin-Innu-aimûn克里语
atj-Nehirâmowin克里语
crm-Ililīmowin克里语
crl-东北克里语
crj-东南克里语
crw-Nēhinawēwin克里语
cwd-Nīhithawīwin克里语
crk-Nēhiyawēwin-Nēhiyawēmowin克里语
瀕危程度
联合国教科文组织认定的濒危语言[2]
脆弱UNESCO
UNESCO AWLD VU CHS.png

语法编辑

与很多美洲原住民语言相似的是,克里语同样是十分复杂的多式综合语。克里语可组出很长的单词,例如在克里语Nēhiyawēwin-Nēhiyawēmowin方言中,“学校”一词是 kiskinohamātowikamik,字面意思为“通过例子而了解事物的地方”。

参考资料编辑

參考文獻编辑

  • Ahenakew, Freda, Cree Language Structures: A Cree Approach. Pemmican Publications Inc., 1987. ISBN 0-919143-42-3
  • Bakker, Peter and Robert A. Papen. “Michif: A Mixed Language based on French and Cree”. Contact Languages: A Wider Perspective. Ed. Sarah G. Thomason. 17 vols. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Co. 1997. ISBN 1-55619-172-3.
  • Bloomfield, Leonard. Plains Cree Texts. New York: AMS Press, 1974. ISBN 0-404-58166-8
  • Carter, Sarah. Aboriginal People and Colonizers of Western Canada to 1900. University of Toronto Press Inc. Toronto: 1999. ISBN 0-8020-7995-4.
  • Castel, Robert J., and David Westfall. Castel's English–Cree Dictionary and Memoirs of the Elders Based on the Woods Cree of Pukatawagan, Manitoba. Brandon, Man: Brandon University Northern Teacher Education Program, 2001. ISBN 0-9689858-0-7
  • Dahlstrom, Amy. Plains Cree Morphosyntax. Outstanding dissertations in linguistics. New York: Garland Pub, 1991. ISBN 0-8153-0172-3
  • Ellis, C. D. Spoken Cree, Level I, west coast of James Bay. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 2000. ISBN 0-88864-347-0
  • Hirose, Tomio. Origins of predicates evidence from Plains Cree. Outstanding dissertations in linguistics. New York: Routledge, 2003. ISBN 0-415-96779-1
  • Junker, Marie-Odile, Marguerite MacKenzie, Luci Salt, Alice Duff, Daisy Moar & Ruth Salt (réds) (2007–2008) Le Dictionnaire du cri de l'Est de la Baie James sur la toile: français-cri et cri-français (dialectes du Sud et du Nord).
  • LeClaire, Nancy, George Cardinal, Earle H. Waugh, and Emily Hunter. Alberta Elders' Cree Dictionary = Alperta Ohci Kehtehayak Nehiyaw Otwestamakewasinahikan. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 1998. ISBN 0-88864-309-8
  • MacKenzie, Marguerite, Marie-Odile Junker, Luci Salt, Elsie Duff, Daisy Moar, Ruth Salt, Ella Neeposh & Bill Jancewicz (eds) (2004–2008) The Eastern James Bay Cree Dictionary on the Web : English-Cree and Cree-English (Northern and Southern dialect).
  • Steller, Lea-Katharina (née Virághalmy): Alkalmazkodni és újat adni – avagy „accomodatio“ a paleográfiában In: Paleográfiai kalandozások. Szentendre, 1995. ISBN 963-450-922-3
  • Wolfart, H. Christoph. Plains Cree A Grammatical Study. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, new ser., v. 63, pt. 5. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1973. ISBN 0-87169-635-5
  • Wolfart, H. C. & Freda Ahenakew, The Student's Dictionary of Literary Plains Cree. Memoir 15, Algonquian and Iroquoian Linguistics, 1998. ISBN 0-921064-15-2
  • Wolvengrey, Arok, ed. nēhiýawēwin: itwēwina / Cree: Words / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ: ᐃᑗᐏᓇ [includes Latin orthography and Cree syllabics]. [Cree–English English–Cree Dictionary – Volume 1: Cree-English; Volume 2: English-Cree]. Canadian Plains Research Center, 15 October 2001. ISBN 0-88977-127-8

外部連結编辑