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创造论與進化論的爭議是有關生命起源是用创造论或是進化論智能設計)來詮釋的爭議,也和人類地球甚至宇宙起源有關,是經常出現的文化政治神學的爭議[1]。此處的「创造论」一般專指基督教中的創造論,也就是相信聖經創世紀所記載:人類、生物、地球及宇宙是由上帝所創造,而進化論則認為生物及人類是因著生物世代之間的變異現象,由其他物種演變而來,是科學界的主流理論。目前對生物與人類起源的問題,存在有強烈的科學共識支持演化論。絕大多數的科學社群和學術團體,都認為演化論是唯一能完全滿足在生物學古生物學分子生物學遺傳學人類學及其他各領域中所觀察到的現象的理論。[2][3][4][5][6]一項在1991年所作的蓋洛普民調顯示,只有大約5%的科學家(包括生物學領域以外的其他科學家)認為自己是創造論者。[7][8]截至目前為止,沒有任何反對演化論且經過科學方面同行審查的論文,名列科學與醫學期刊搜尋引擎PubMed當中[9];但在學術界以外的地方,依舊有許多人相信演化論以外的其他解釋。一項2009年由皮尤研究中心做的調查顯示,「幾乎所有的科學家(97%)都認為,人類和其他的動物是透過演化而變成現在的樣子的,87%的科學家認為,這過程是自然發生的,包含了諸如天擇等的過程;然而科學界的主流觀點,也就是生物是透過天擇等過程演化來的這點,並非一般大眾普遍的看法,只有大約三分之一(32%)的民眾相信演化論。」[10]

创造论與進化論的爭議在美國是很大的議題,在歐洲和其他地區也造成一些爭議[11],亦被視為是文化战争的一部份[12]

参见编辑

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ Shermer, Michael. Then a Miracle Occurs: An Obstreperous Evening with the Insouciant Kent Hovind, Young Earth Creationist and Defender of the Faith. eSkeptic Online. 2004-05-10 [2007-02-11]. 
  2. ^ Myers, PZ. Ann Coulter: No evidence for evolution?. Pharyngula (scienceblogs.com). 2006-06-18 [2006-11-18]. (原始内容存档于2006-06-22). 
  3. ^ The National Science Teachers Association's position statement on the teaching of evolution.
  4. ^ IAP Statement on the Teaching of Evolution Joint statement issued by the national science academies of 67 countries, including the United Kingdom's Royal Society (PDF file)
  5. ^ From the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the world's largest general scientific society: 2006 Statement on the Teaching of Evolution (PDF file), AAAS Denounces Anti-Evolution Laws
  6. ^ Fact, Fancy, and Myth on Human Evolution, Alan J. Almquist, John E. Cronin, Current Anthropology, Vol. 29, No. 3 (Jun., 1988), pp. 520–522
  7. ^ Public beliefs about evolution and creation, Robinson, B. A. 1995.
  8. ^ Many scientists see God's hand in evolution, Witham, Larry, Reports of the National Center for Science Education 17(6): 33, 1997
  9. ^ Attie AD, Sober E, Numbers RL, Amasino RM, Cox B, Berceau T, 等. Defending science education against intelligent design: a call to action. J Clin Invest. 2006, 116 (5): 1134–8. PMC 1451210. PMID 16670753. doi:10.1172/JCI28449. 
  10. ^ Pew Research Center: "Public Praises Science; Scientists Fault Public, Media" July 9, 2009.
  11. ^ Curry, Andrew. Creationist Beliefs Persist in Europe. Science. 27 February 2009, 323 (5918): 1159. PMID 19251601. doi:10.1126/science.323.5918.1159. "News coverage of the creationism-versus-evolution debate tends to focus on the United States ... But in the past 5 years, political clashes over the issue have also occurred in countries all across Europe. ... 'This isn't just an American problem,' says Dittmar Graf of the Technical University of Dortmund, who organized the meeting."
  12. ^ Larson, Edward J. Trial and Error: The American Controversy Over Creation and Evolution. Oxford University Press. 2003: 276. ISBN 0-19-515470-3.