# 利特尔-帕克斯效应

## 历史

1950年，弗里茨·伦敦在他的文章中定义了类磁通 ${\displaystyle \Phi '}$

${\displaystyle \Phi '=\Phi +{\frac {m^{*}c}{e^{*2}}}\oint {\frac {\mathbf {J} _{s}\cdot d\mathbf {s} }{|\psi |^{2}}}}$

## 实验

${\displaystyle \Delta T_{c}={\frac {\hbar ^{2}}{16m^{\ast }R^{2}}}\left({\frac {2e}{hc}}\Phi +n\right)^{2}}$

## 注释

1. ^ 需要指出的是，fluxoid（此处译为类磁通）的定义略微不同于磁通量：对于第一类超导体，若厚度较大，则类磁通（fluxoid）和磁通量（flux）相等；而对于薄超导体，或是第二类超导体，严格来说只有类磁通（fluxiod）遵循量子化。另外，磁通量量子（flux quantum）在其他教科书中也被称作“fluxoid”（见Kittel所著《Introduction to Solid State Physics》的第281页[3]以及Ashcroft与Mermin所著《Solid State Physics》的第749页[4]），但Tinkham在《Introduction to Superconductivity》的第127页明确指出利特尔-帕克斯实验验证的是类磁通（fluxoid）的量子化，不能与磁通量量子混为一谈。

## 参考资料

1. W. A. Little and R. D. Parks, “Observation of Quantum Periodicity in the Transition Temperature of a Superconducting Cylinder”, Physical Review Letters 9, 9 (1962), doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.9.9
2. Gurovich, Doron; Tikhonov, Konstantin; Mahalu, Diana; Shahar, Dan. Little-Parks Oscillations in a Single Ring in the vicinity of the Superconductor-Insulator Transition. Physical Review B. 2014-11-20, 91 [2018-01-24]. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.91.174505. （原始内容存档于2019-06-03）.
3. ^ Kittel, Charles. Introduction to Solid State Physics sixth. John Wiley and Sons. 1986. ISBN 0-471-87474-4.
4. ^ Neil W. Ashcroft; N. David Mermin. Solid state physics 27. repr. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1977: 749. ISBN 0030839939.
5. Tinkham, M. Introduction to Superconductivity, Second Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. 1996. ISBN 0486435032.
6. ^ HUDSON, R. P. Superfluids: Macroscopic Theory of Superconductivity, Vol. I. Fritz London. New York: Wiley; London: Chapman & Hall, 1950. 161 pp. \$5.00. Science. 1951-04-20, 113 (2938): 447–447 [2018-01-31]. doi:10.1126/science.113.2938.447. （原始内容存档于2019-06-18）.
7. ^ Deaver, Bascom S.; Fairbank, William M. Experimental Evidence for Quantized Flux in Superconducting Cylinders. Physical Review Letters. 1961-07-15, 7 (2): 43–46. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.7.43.
8. ^ Lindley, David. Focus: Landmarks—Superconductor Quantizes Magnetic Field. Physics. 2015-10-23, 8 [2018-01-31]. （原始内容存档于2019-06-10）.
9. ^ Groff, R. P.; Parks, R. D. Fluxoid Quantization and Field-Induced Depairing in a Hollow Superconducting Microcylinder. Physical Review. 1968-12-10, 176 (2): 567–580. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.176.567.
10. ^ Kopnov, G.; Cohen, O.; Ovadia, M.; Lee, K. Hong; Wong, C. C.; Shahar, D. Little-Parks Oscillations in an Insulator. Physical Review Letters. 2012-10-17, 109 (16). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.167002.
11. ^ Sochnikov, Ilya; Shaulov, Avner; Yeshurun, Yosef; Logvenov, Gennady; Božović, Ivan. Large oscillations of the magnetoresistance in nanopatterned high-temperature superconducting films. Nature Nanotechnology. 2010-06-13, 5 (7): 516 [2018-01-09]. doi:10.1038/nnano.2010.111. （原始内容存档于2015-01-22） （英语）.