剛性條款

憲法基本法中的剛性條款(英語:entrenched clause, entrenchment clause)是讓某些修正案更難以通過或無法通過的規定,導致此類修正案不予受理。剛性條款的修正或廢除可能需要超級多數決英语supermajority公投或少數政黨的同意。剛性條款或相似用語出現在巴西、捷克[1]、德國、希臘[2]、印度[3]、伊朗、義大利[4]、摩洛哥[5]、挪威[4]與土耳其的憲法或基本法中。

參考文獻编辑

  1. ^ Kyriaki Topidi and Alexander H. E. Morawa. Constitutional Evolution in Central and Eastern Europe (Studies in Modern Law and Policy). 2010: 105. ISBN 978-1409403272. 
  2. ^ The official English language translation of the Greek Constitution as of May 27, 2008, Article 110 §1, p. 124, source: Hellenic Parliament, "The provisions of the Constitution shall be subject to revision with the exception of those which determine the form of government as a Parliamentary Republic and those of articles 2 paragraph 1, 4 paragraphs 1, 4 and 7 , 5 paragraphs 1 and 3, 13 paragraph 1, and 26."
  3. ^ Changes like Brexit need a super-majority. Times of India Blog. 2016-07-03 [2020-08-31] (美国英语). 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Joel Colón-Ríos. Weak Constitutionalism: Democratic Legitimacy and the Question of Constituent Power (Routledge Research in Constitutional Law. 2012: 67. ISBN 978-0415671903. 
  5. ^ Gerhard Robbers. Encyclopedia of World Constitutions. 2006: 626. ISBN 978-0816060788.