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加拉帕戈斯象龜(學名:Chelonoidis nigra)是現存體型最大的陸龜之一。為厄瓜多爾加拉帕戈斯群島特有。成年象龜身長1.5 米(4.9呎),平均体重达到175公斤,最高纪录为400公斤(880磅),在爬虫类中列第13位。野外寿命超过100年。2006年6月23日在澳洲動物園因心臟衰竭病逝的大象龜哈麗,估計享年約175歲,病逝前為世上最長壽的存活動物。

 
加拉帕戈斯象龜
棲息於聖克魯茲島上的加拉巴哥象龜。
棲息於聖克魯茲島上的加拉巴哥象龜。
保护状况
科學分類
界: 動物界 Animalia
門: 脊索动物门 Chordata
綱: 爬行纲 Sauropsida
目: 龜鱉目 Testudines
科: 陸龜科 Testudinidae
屬: 南美象龜屬 Chelonoidis
種: 加拉帕戈斯象龜綜合 C. nigra complex[1]
二名法
Chelonoidis nigra
(Quoy & Gaimard, 1824b[2])
亞種
異名[15]
亞種異名[8]
  • Testudo californiana
    Quoy & Gaimard, 1824a (nomen oblitum)
  • Testudo nigra
    Quoy & Gaimard, 1824b[2] (nomen novum)
  • Testudo elephantopus
    Harlan, 1827 (nomen dubium)
  • Testudo nigrita
    Duméril and Bibron, 1834 (nomen dubium)
  • Testudo planiceps
    Gray, 1853[9] (nomen dubium)
  • Testudo clivosa
    Garman, 1917[5] (nomen dubium)
  • Testudo typica
    Garman, 1917[5] (nomen dubium)
  • Testudo (Chelonoidis) elephantopus
    Williams, 1952[10]
  • Geochelone (Chelonoidis) elephantopus
    Pritchard, 1967[11]
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus
    Bour, 1980[12]
亞種異名 (概要)[1]

C. n. nigra (指名亞種)

C. n. abingdoni

  • Testudo ephippium
    Günther, 1875[7] (partim, misidentified type specimen once erroneously attributed to what is now C. n. duncanensis)
  • Testudo abingdoni
    Günther, 1877[3]

C. n. becki

C. n. chathamensis

C. n. darwini

C. n. duncanensis

C. n. hoodensis

C. n. phantastica

C. n. porteri

C. n. vicina

亞種異名 (全部)[15]
Chelonoidis nigra nigra
  • Testudo nigra Quoy & Gaimard, 1824
  • Testudo californiana Quoy & Gaimard, 1824
  • Testudo galapagoensis Baur, 1889
  • Testudo elephantopus galapagoensis Mertens & Wermuth, 1955
  • Geochelone elephantopus galapagoensis Pritchard, 1967
  • Chelonoidis galapagoensis Bour, 1980
  • Chelonoidis nigra Bour, 1985
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus galapagoensis Obst, 1985
  • Geochelone nigra Pritchard, 1986
  • Geochelone nigra nigra Stubbs, 1989
  • Chelonoidis nigra galapagoensis David, 1994
  • Chelonoidis nigra nigra David, 1994
  • Geochelone elephantopus nigra Bonin, Devaux & Dupré, 1996
  • Testudo california Paull, 1998 (ex errore)
  • Testudo californianana Paull, 1999 (ex errore)
Chelonoidis nigra abingdonii
  • Testudo ephippium Günther, 1875
  • Testudo abingdonii Günther, 1877
  • Testudo abingdoni Van Denburgh, 1914 (ex errore)
  • Testudo elephantopus abingdonii Mertens & Wermuth, 1955
  • Testudo elephantopus ephippium Mertens & Wermuth, 1955
  • Geochelone abingdonii Pritchard, 1967
  • Geochelone elephantopus abingdoni Pritchard, 1967
  • Geochelone elephantopus ephippium Pritchard, 1967
  • Geochelone ephippium Pritchard, 1967
  • Chelonoidis abingdonii Bour, 1980
  • Chelonoidis ephippium Bour, 1980
  • Geochelone elephantopus abingdonii Groombridge, 1982
  • Geochelone abingdoni Fritts, 1983
  • Geochelone epphipium Fritts, 1983 (ex errore)
  • Chelonoidis nigra ephippium Pritchard, 1984
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus abingdoni Obst, 1985
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus ephippium Obst, 1985
  • Geochelone nigra abingdoni Stubbs, 1989
  • Chelonoidis nigra abingdonii David, 1994
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus abingdonii Rogner, 1996
  • Chelonoidis nigra abingdoni Bonin, Devaux & Dupré, 1996
  • Chelonoidis nigra abdingdonii Obst, 1996 (ex errore)
  • Geochelone abdingdonii Obst, 1996
  • Geochelone nigra abdingdoni Obst, 1996 (ex errore)
  • Geochelone nigra ephyppium Caccone, Gibbs, Ketmaier, Suatoni & Powell, 1999 (ex errore)
  • Chelonoidis nigra ahingdonii Artner, 2003 (ex errore)
  • Chelonoidis abingdoni Joseph-Ouni, 2004
Chelonoidis nigra becki
  • Testudo becki Rothschild, 1901
  • Testudo bedsi Heller, 1903 (ex errore)
  • Geochelone becki Pritchard, 1967
  • Geochelone elephantopus becki Pritchard, 1967
  • Chelonoidis becki Bour, 1980
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus becki Obst, 1985
  • Chelonoidis nigra beckii David, 1994 (ex errore)
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus beckii Rogner, 1996
  • Chelonoidis nigra becki Obst, 1996
Chelonoidis nigra chathamensis
  • Testudo wallacei Rothschild, 1902
  • Testudo chathamensis Van Denburgh, 1907
  • Testudo elephantopus chathamensis Mertens & Wermuth, 1955
  • Testudo elephantopus wallacei Mertens & Wermuth, 1955
  • Testudo chatamensis Slevin & Leviton, 1956 (ex errore)
  • Geochelone chathamensis Pritchard, 1967
  • Geochelone elephantopus chathamensis Pritchard, 1967
  • Geochelone elephantopus wallacei Pritchard, 1967
  • Geochelone wallacei Pritchard, 1967
  • Chelonoidis chathamensis Bour, 1980
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus chathamensis Obst, 1985
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus wallacei Obst, 1985
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus chatamensis Gosławski & Hryniewicz, 1993
  • Chelonoidis nigra chathamensis David, 1994
  • Chelonoidis nigra wallacei Bonin, Devaux & Dupré, 1996
  • Geochelone cathamensis Obst, 1996 (ex errore)
  • Geochelone elephantopus chatamensis Paull, 1996
  • Testudo chathamensis chathamensis Pritchard, 1998
  • Cherlonoidis nigra wallacei Wilms, 1999
  • Geochelone nigra chatamensis Caccone, Gibbs, Ketmaier, Suatoni & Powell, 1999
  • Geochelone nigra wallacei Chambers, 2004

Chelonoidis nigra darwini

  • Testudo wallacei Rothschild, 1902
  • Testudo darwini Van Denburgh, 1907
  • Testudo elephantopus darwini Mertens & Wermuth, 1955
  • Testudo elephantopus wallacei Mertens & Wermuth, 1955
  • Geochelone darwini Pritchard, 1967
  • Geochelone elephantopus darwini Pritchard, 1967
  • Geochelone elephantopus wallacei Pritchard, 1967
  • Geochelone wallacei Pritchard, 1967
  • Chelonoidis darwini Bour, 1980
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus darwini Obst, 1985
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus wallacei Obst, 1985
  • Chelonoidis nigra darwinii David, 1994 (ex errore)
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus darwinii Rogner, 1996
  • Chelonoidis nigra darwini Bonin, Devaux & Dupré, 1996
  • Chelonoidis nigra wallacei Bonin, Devaux & Dupré, 1996
  • Cherlonoidis nigra wallacei Wilms, 1999
  • Geochelone nigra darwinii Ferri, 2002
  • Geochelone nigra wallacei Chambers, 2004
Chelonoidis nigra duncanensis
  • Testudo duncanensis Garman, 1917 (nomen nudum)
  • Geochelone nigra duncanensis Stubbs, 1989
  • Geochelone nigra duncanensis Garman, 1996
  • Chelonoidis nigra duncanensis Artner, 2003
  • Chelonoidis duncanensis Joseph-Ouni, 2004
Chelonoidis nigra hoodensis
  • Testudo hoodensis Van Denburgh, 1907
  • Testudo elephantopus hoodensis Mertens & Wermuth, 1955
  • Geochelone elephantopus hoodensis Pritchard, 1967
  • Geochelone hoodensis Pritchard, 1967
  • Chelonoidis hoodensis Bour, 1980
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus hoodensis Obst, 1985
  • Chelonoidis nigra hoodensis David, 1994
Chelonoidis nigra phantastica
  • Testudo phantasticus Van Denburgh, 1907
  • Testudo phantastica Siebenrock, 1909
  • Testudo elephantopus phantastica Mertens & Wermuth, 1955
  • Geochelone elephantopus phantastica Pritchard, 1967
  • Geochelone phantastica Pritchard, 1967
  • Chelonoidis phantastica Bour, 1980
  • Geochelone phantasticus Crumly, 1984
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus phantastica Obst, 1985
  • Chelonoidis nigra phantastica David, 1994
Chelonoidis nigra porteri
  • Testudo nigrita Duméril & Bibron, 1835
  • Testudo porteri Rothschild, 1903
  • Testudo elephantopus nigrita Mertens & Wermuth, 1955
  • Geochelone elephantopus porteri Pritchard, 1967
  • Geochelone nigrita Pritchard, 1967
  • Chelonoidis nigrita Bour, 1980
  • Geochelone elephantopus nigrita Honegger, 1980
  • Geochelone porteri Fritts, 1983
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus nigrita Obst, 1985
  • Geochelone nigra porteri Stubbs, 1989
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus porteri Gosławski & Hryniewicz, 1993
  • Chelonoidis nigra nigrita David, 1994
  • Geochelone nigra perteri Müller & Schmidt, 1995 (ex errore)
  • Chelonoidis nigra porteri Bonin, Devaux & Dupré, 1996
Chelonoidis nigra vicina
  • Testudo elephantopus Harlan, 1827
  • Testudo microphyes Günther, 1875
  • Testudo vicina Günther, 1875
  • Testudo macrophyes Garman, 1917
  • Testudo vandenburghi de Sola, 1930
  • Testudo elephantopus elephantopus Mertens & Wermuth, 1955
  • Geochelone elephantopus Williams, 1960
  • Geochelone elephantopus elephantopus Pritchard, 1967
  • Geochelone elephantopus guentheri Pritchard, 1967
  • Geochelone elephantopus guntheri Pritchard, 1967 (ex errore)
  • Geochelone elephantopus microphyes Pritchard, 1967
  • Geochelone elephantopus vandenburgi Pritchard, 1967 (ex errore)
  • Geochelone guntheri Pritchard, 1967
  • Geochelone microphyes Pritchard, 1967
  • Geochelone vandenburghi Pritchard, 1967
  • Geochelone vicina Pritchard, 1967
  • Geochelone elephantopus microphys Arnold, 1979 (ex errore)
  • Geochelone elephantopus vandenburghi Pritchard, 1979
  • Chelonoides elephantopus Obst, 1980
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus Bour, 1980
  • Chelonoidis guentheri Bour, 1980
  • Chelonoidis microphyes Bour, 1980
  • Chelonoidis vandenburghi Bour, 1980
  • Geochelone guentheri Fritts, 1983
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus elephantopus Obst, 1985
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus guentheri Obst, 1985
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus microphyes Obst, 1985
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus vandenburghi Obst, 1985
  • Geochelone elephantopus vicina Swingland, 1989
  • Geochelone elephantopus vicini Swingland, 1989 (ex errore)
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus guntheri Gosławski & Hryniewicz, 1993
  • Chelonoidis nigra guentheri David, 1994
  • Chelonoidis nigra microphyes David, 1994
  • Chelonoidis nigra vandenburghi David, 1994
  • Geochelone nigra elephantopus Müller & Schmidt, 1995
  • Chelonoidis elephantopus vicina Rogner, 1996
  • Geochelone elephantopus vandenburghii Obst, 1996 (ex errore)
  • Geochelone vandenburghii Obst, 1996
  • Chelonoidis nigra microphyies Bonin, Devaux & Dupré, 1996 (ex errore)
  • Geochelone elephantopus microphytes Paull, 1996 (ex errore)
  • Geochelone elephantopus vandenbergi Paull, 1996 (ex errore)
  • Testudo elephantopus guntheri Paull, 1999
  • Chelonoidis nigra vicina Artner, 2003
  • Chelonoidis vicina Joseph-Ouni, 2004
  • Geochelone nigra guentheri Chambers, 2004

由於加拉帕戈斯群島中不同島上的生態環境有明顯的差異,故不同亞種的象龜形態都不同。在湿润的高地岛,象龟更大,有半球形的壳和短脖子,在干燥的低地岛,象龟更小,有马鞍形的壳和长脖子。这啟發出達爾文對“进化论”的思考。

近年這些群島上各品種之間的關係存在爭議,故現時將加拉帕戈斯象龜歸類為一個物種綜合(species complex),而非單一物種。

16世纪加拉帕戈斯象龜的數量大約有25萬隻,1970年代只剩下3000只,主要原因是人的捕猎以获取肉和油,栖息地被农业生产占用和物种入侵,如羊和猪。原有的15个亚种还剩十个亚种在野外生存,第十一个亚种只剩一只名为「孤独乔治」的雄龟,于2012年6月死亡。20世纪初开始的动物保护活动使象龟现有的数量回复到1.9万只。在国际自然保护联盟名录中属于易危物种。

目录

分佈與棲息地编辑

 
各亞種分佈:灰色表示尚有原生象龜的島嶼,但分佈極西的費爾南迪納島象龜於2019年重新被發現

加拉帕戈斯象龜只分佈於南美洲加拉帕戈斯群島的9個小島上。為適應各島上不同的環境以及食物來源,象龜在數百萬年間分化成15个亚种,现在仅約10种还有野外存活的个体,最近絕種的品种平塔岛象龟C. n. abingdoni)曾長期只剩一只名为「孤独乔治」的雄龟。加拉巴戈斯國家公園(Galapagos National ParkService)於2012年6月24日發出聲明,「孤獨喬治」已經死亡。在6月24號當日,長久以來一直照顧「孤獨喬治」的勒裏納(Fausto Llerena)發現牠的屍體癱在地上,面朝聖克魯斯島(Santa Cruz Island)上「牠水坑的所在方向」。[16]


品種列表编辑

品種 [17][18] 保育狀況
C. abingdonii
平塔島象龜

 

 

2012年絶種,但在2007年於伊莎貝拉島發現與此種的混種[19]

C. becki (named for Rollo Beck)
沃爾夫火山象龜(來自伊莎貝拉島

 

 

易危

C. chathamensis
聖克里斯托巴爾島象龜

 

 

瀕危

C. darwini (以查爾斯·達爾文命名)
聖地亞哥島象龜

 

 

極危

C. duncanensis
平松島象龜

 

 

易危

C. donfaustoi
加拉帕戈斯·唐福斯托象龜(分佈在聖克魯茲島東部)

 

未知,現存約250隻;於2015年獲確認為新種
C. guentheri (以阿爾伯特·甘瑟命名)
內格拉火山象龜(來自伊莎貝拉島)

 

 

瀕危

C. hoodensis
艾斯潘諾拉島(西班牙島)象龜

 

 

極危

C. microphyes (L. 'small in stature')
達爾文火山象龜(來自伊莎貝拉島)

 

 

易危

C. nigra (L. 'black')
弗雷里安納島象龜
 

1846年被宣布絕種

C. phantasticus
費爾南迪納巨龜(分佈在費爾南迪納島

 

 

極危;於2019年重新被發現

C. porteri
聖克魯茲島象龜

 

 

極危

C. vandenburghi

阿爾塞多火山象龜(來自伊莎貝拉島)

 

易危

C. vicina (L. 'near')
阿蘇爾火山象龜(來自伊莎貝拉島)


 

瀕危

習性编辑

龜是變溫動物(冷血動物),因此在陽光下曬1-2小時,吸收太陽的熱量,而天亮後他們會積極覓食。牠們每天睡8-9小時,大多在清晨或傍晚休息。同時,牠們的行走速度為每小時0.3公里(0.2英里)。

在較大、較潮濕及低海拔的島嶼上,龜之間會出現季節性遷移,在乾燥的季節,牠們會遷移到海拔較高(610米)的草原地區。同一路線已出現了很長時間,創造良好行走的路徑,而被烏龜通過的灌木叢被稱為「烏龜公路」。

在涼爽的夜晚,加拉帕戈斯象龜會會在泥濘的及雨水形成的池中休息,這可能是由於需要進行體溫調節和驅趕寄生蟲。亦有些龜會在伸出的岩石下休息。

飲食编辑

加拉帕戈斯象龜是草食動物,食物包括仙人掌、草、樹葉、苔蘚和漿果等。一隻烏龜平均每天吃32-36公斤(70-80磅)的食物,但因消化系統的效率較低,因此攝取的營養也較少。

陸龜以植物的露水和汁液獲得大部分水份,因此,他們可以在很長時間內不喝水。他們也可以忍受長達18個月的時間不進食不喝水;而口渴時,他們喝水的速度可以既大量又快速,並儲在自己的膀胱及心臟,使他們在長時間內不用再喝水。在乾旱的島嶼上,象龜會在清晨時舔舐巨石上的露水,許多岩石上已形成因連續多代的此類行為所造成的岩石凹陷。

瀕危原因编辑

達爾文初到加拉帕戈斯群島時,加拉帕戈斯象龜的數量大約有25萬隻,現在卻只剩下1萬9千隻。數量劇降的最主要原因是18至19世紀的捕鯨者海盜經常捕捉象龜作為在船上的糧食。

保護狀況编辑

加拉帕戈斯群島現已受到厄瓜多政府保護,列為國家公園,也是世界自然遺產

参见编辑

参考资料编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Rhodin, A.G.J.; van Dijk, P.P. Turtles of the world, 2010 update: Annotated checklist of taxonomy, synonymy, distribution and conservation status. (编) Iverson, J.B.; Shaffer, H.B. Turtle taxonomy working group. Chelonian Research Foundation. 2010: 33–34. doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v3.2010.  缺少或|title=为空 (帮助)
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Quoy, J.R.C.; Gaimard, J.P. Sous-genre tortue de terre – testudo. brongn. tortue noire – testudo nigra. N.. (编) de Freycinet, M.L. Voyage autour du Monde ... exécuté sur les corvettes de L. M. "L'Uranie" et "La Physicienne," pendant les années 1817, 1818, 1819 et 1820. Paris. 1824b: 174–175 (法语). 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Günther 1877,第85页
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Van Denburgh, John. Preliminary descriptions of four new races of gigantic land tortoises from the Galapagos Islands. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Series 4. 1907, 1: 1–6 [2012-01-12]. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Garman, Samuel. The Galapagos tortoises. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College. 1917, 30 (4): 261–296. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Rothschild, Walter. Description of a new species of gigantic land tortoise from Indefatigable Island. Novitates Zoologicae. 1903, 10: 119 [2012-01-11]. 
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  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Pritchard 1996,第49页
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  10. ^ Williams, Ernest E.; Anthony, Harold Elmer; Goodwin, George Gilbert. A new fossil tortoise from Mona Island West Indies and a tentative arrangement of the tortoises of the world. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 1952, 99 (9): 541–560. hdl:2246/418. 
  11. ^ Pritchard, Peter Charles Howard. Living turtles of the world. New Jersey: TFH Publications. 1967: 156. 
  12. ^ Bour, R. Essai sur la taxinomie des Testudinidae actuels (Reptilia, Chelonii). Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris). 1980, 4 (2): 546 (法语). 
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Baur, G. The Gigantic Land Tortoises of the Galapagos Islands (PDF). The American Naturalist. 1889, 23 (276): 1039–1057 [2012-01-11]. doi:10.1086/275045. 
  14. ^ DeSola, Ralph. The liebespiel of Testudo vandenburghi, a new name for the mid-Albemarle Island Galápagos tortoise. Copeia. 1930, 1930 (3): 79–80. JSTOR 1437060. doi:10.2307/1437060. 
  15. ^ 15.0 15.1 Fritz Uwe; Peter Havaš. Checklist of Chelonians of the World (PDF). Vertebrate Zoology. 2007, 57 (2): 271–276 [29 May 2012]. ISSN 18640-5755. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2010年12月17日). 
  16. ^ The World Loses Lonesome George. 2012-06-24 [24 June 2012]. (原始内容存档于2012年6月28日). 
  17. ^ Chelonoidis nigra. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 1996 [April 1, 2010]. 
  18. ^ Pritchard, Encyclopedia of turtles, Neptune, New Jersey: T. F. H. Publ., Inc., 1979 
  19. ^ DNA search gives hope to tortoise[與來源不符]. BBC News. (Accessed 2012-01-14.)

外部連結编辑

  維基共享資源中与Chelonoidis nigra相關的分類