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加衛苗,(亦作GardasilGardisilSilgardrecombinant human papillomavirus vaccine [types 6, 11, 16, 18]),[1][2]人類乳突病毒疫苗的一种,用于预防特定毒株人类乳突病毒(HPV),[3]特别是6,11,16和18型。[4][5]约70%的子宫颈癌[6][7],以及大多数的肛门癌[8]外陰癌阴道癌[9]阴茎癌由16和18型HPV病毒感染造成。约90%的尖锐湿疣病例由6型和11型的HPV病毒感染引起。尽管加卫苗不能清除体内已经存在的病毒,仍然推荐HPV阳性患者接种,因为疫苗可以使患者免受其他种类毒株的感染。[10]加卫苗所预防的毒株都是通过性行为传播的。加卫苗在2006年6月8日由美国食药监局认可。至2008年,美国41个州也相继认可了该疫苗。[11]除美国外,还有120个国家认可加卫苗。[12]美国食药监局建议青春期前及无性行为经验的人群接种该疫苗。[4][13][14]

加衛苗
Gardasil vaccine and box new.jpg
疫苗说明
目标疾病 人类乳突病毒(16、18、6、11型)
种类 蛋白质亚基
临床数据
商品名 Gardasil
Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a607016
妊娠分级
  • US: B (非人类研究中表明无风险)
给药途径 肌肉注射
合法狀態
合法状态
识别信息
ATC代码 J07BM01
ChemSpider none

2014年12月,美国食药监局又认可了一支基于加卫苗开发的九价HPV疫苗,加卫-9[注 1]。这支疫苗新增了5种HPV毒株的表面蛋白[注 2][15]

注解编辑

  1. ^ 亦作:Gardasil 9
  2. ^ 这五种毒株分别是HPV-31、HPV-33、HPV-45、HPV-52和HPV-58,20%的子宫颈癌由它们引起。

参考编辑

  1. ^ Silgard European Public Assessment Report. 歐洲藥品管理局. September 25, 2009 [2009-12-05]. (原始内容存档于2009年12月26日). 
  2. ^ Waknine, Yael. International Approvals: Singulair and Gardasil/Silgard. Medscape Today. October 2, 2006 [2008-12-18]. 
  3. ^ Richwine, Lisa. UPDATE 2-U.S. health officials back safety of Merck vaccine. Reuters. August 20, 2009 [2009-11-12]. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Markowitz, L. E.; Dunne, E. F.; Saraiya, M.; Lawson, H. W.; Chesson, H.; Unger, E. R.; Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC); Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) (PDF). MMWR. Recommendations and reports : Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control. 2007, 56 (RR-2): 1–24. PMID 17380109. 
  5. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). FDA licensure of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4, Gardasil) for use in males and guidance from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) (PDF). MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report. 2010, 59 (20): 630–632. PMID 20508594. 
  6. ^ Lowy DR, Schiller JT. Prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccines. J. Clin. Invest. May 2006, 116 (5): 1167–73 [2009-11-12]. PMC 1451224. PMID 16670757. doi:10.1172/JCI28607. 
  7. ^ Muñoz N, Bosch FX, Castellsagué X. Against which human papillomavirus types shall we vaccinate and screen? The international perspective. Int. J. Cancer. August 2004, 111 (2): 278–85. PMID 15197783. doi:10.1002/ijc.20244. 
  8. ^ Cortez, Michelle Fay; Pettypiece, Shannon. Merck Cancer Shot Cuts Genital Warts, Lesions in Men (Update2). Bloomberg News. 13 November 2008 [2009-11-12]. [永久失效連結]
  9. ^ FDA Approves Expanded Uses for Gardasil to Include Preventing Certain Vulvar and Vaginal Cancers (新闻稿). 美國食品藥品監督管理局 (FDA). 2008-09-12 [2009-11-11]. 
  10. ^ The Ethics of Vaccination. Springer Publishing Company. [2013-09-29]. 
  11. ^ The Ethics of vaccination. Springer Publishing Company. [2013-10-03]. 
  12. ^ Haupt, Richard; Sings, Heather. The efficacy and safety of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus 6/11/16/18 vaccine gardasil. Journal of Adolescent Health. November 2011, 49 (5): 467–475. PMID 22018560. doi:10.1016/jodohealth.2011.07.003. 
  13. ^ Gardasil full prescribing information (PDF). Merck & Co. [2009-11-11]. 
  14. ^ Gardasil Vaccine Safety. Vaccine Safety & Availability. 美國食品藥品監督管理局 (FDA). August 20, 2009 [2009-11-11]. 
  15. ^ FDA approves Gardasil 9 for prevention of certain cancers caused by five additional types of HPV (press release). 10 December 2014 [28 February 2015]. 

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