北方真兽高目

有胎盘哺乳动物的一大演化支


北方真獸高目學名:Boreoeutheria,來自古希臘語Βορέας,Boreas-“北方”,εὐ-,eu-“好,真”,θηρίον,thēríon“野獸”,因此是“北方真獸”之意),系胎盤哺乳動物之演化支,由勞亞獸總目(包括大多數有蹄類哺乳動物,大多數有爪食肉動物和其它幾個類群)和靈長總目 (超靈長類) 組成。現在,北方真獸高目的單系起源得到DNA序列分析以及有關反轉錄轉座子數據的充分支持[1]。該演化支之外的胎盤哺乳動物是異關節總目(樹懶及其近親)和非洲獸總目(大象及其近親)[2]

北方真兽高目
如何讀生物分類框

化石时期:早期古新世 - 全新世, 65–0 Ma
Laurasiatheria.png
Euarchontoglires collage.jpg
科学分类 e
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 脊索动物门 Chordata
纲: 哺乳纲 Mammalia
亚纲: 兽亚纲 Theria
下纲: 真兽下纲 Eutheria
演化支 胎盘类 Placentalia
高目: 北方真兽高目 Boreoeutheria
總目

這一類動物的最早的化石可追溯到大約6500萬年前,即K-Pg滅絕事件後不久,儘管分子生物學數據表明,它們可能起源於更早的白堊紀時期。除了少數例外,此演化支的雄性動物有陰囊,有阴囊大目(Scrotifera)正是以該特徵命名的[3] [4][5]

系统发生编辑

根据分子遗传学的研究结果,北方真獸高目和其它真兽类的亲缘关系可能是:

真獸下綱 Eutheria
北方真獸高目 Boreoeutheria

勞亞獸總目 Laurasiatheria

靈長總目 Euarchontoglires

大西洋真獸高目 Atlantogenata

異關節總目 Xenarthra

非洲獸總目 Afrotheria

根据大部分学者认可的猛兽有蹄类学说[2],北方真獸高目内部的演化关系可能是:

 北方真獸高目 

 靈長總目       
鼯猴樹鼩 等)

 勞亞獸總目 

 真盲缺目  
刺蝟鼩鼱鼴鼠 等)

 有陰囊大目 

 翼手目  
蝙蝠

 猛獸有蹄類 
 猛獸類 

 鱗甲目  
穿山甲

 食肉目    
鬣狗鰭足類 等)

 真有蹄類 

 奇蹄目    
犀牛

 鯨偶蹄目    
駱駝鹿河馬鯨豚類 等)

基於線粒體 DNA核 DNA蛋白質特徵構建

參考文献编辑

  1. ^ Jaebum Kima, et al. Reconstruction and evolutionary history of eutherian chromosomes 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆, Jaebum Kima, Marta Farréb, Loretta Auvilc, Boris Capitanuc, Denis M. Larkinb, Jian Mad, and Harris A. Lewine, Department of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, South Korea; Comparative Biomedical Science Department, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London, NW1 0TU, United Kingdom; Illinois Informatics Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801; Computational Biology Department, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213; and Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Zhou, Xuming; Xu, Shixia; Xu, Junxiao; Chen, Bingyao; Zhou, Kaiya; Yang, Guang. Phylogenomic Analysis Resolves the Interordinal Relationships and Rapid Diversification of the Laurasiatherian Mammals. Systematic Biology. 2011, 61 (1): 150–164. PMC 3243735. PMID 21900649. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syr089. 
  3. ^ O'Leary, M. A.; Bloch, J. I.; Flynn, J. J.; Gaudin, T. J.; Giallombardo, A.; Giannini, N. P.; Cirranello, A. L. The placental mammal ancestor and the post–K-Pg radiation of placentals. Science. 2013, 339 (6120): 662–667. Bibcode:2013Sci...339..662O. PMID 23393258. hdl:11336/7302. 
  4. ^ Mills, D. S.; Marchant-Forde, Jeremy N. The Encyclopedia of Applied Animal Behaviour and Welfare. CABI. 2010: 293– [20 June 2019]. ISBN 978-0-85199-724-7. 
  5. ^ Drew, Liam. Why are testicles kept in a vulnerable dangling sac?. slate.com. 8 July 2013 [2020-09-29]. (原始内容存档于2018-09-30). Between these branches, however, is where it gets interesting, for there are numerous groups, our descended but a-scrotal cousins, whose testes drop down away from the kidneys but don't exit the abdomen. Almost certainly, these animals evolved from ancestors whose testes were external, which means at some point they backtracked ... , evolving anew gonads inside the abdomen. They are a ragtag bunch including hedgehogs, moles, rhinos and tapirs, hippopotamuses, dolphins and whales, some seals and walruses, and scaly anteaters.