十字弓行動

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十字弓行動Operation Crossbow)是英國皇家空軍二戰中最卓越的貢獻之一,他們鉅細靡遺地拍下歐洲淪陷區內所有地貌,再藉著3D立體定位、辨識後,有效摧毀納粹的導彈,使英軍在後續諾曼地登陸時更具威脅,也縮短整個戰爭的時程。 [12]

第二次世界大战
Operation Crossbow
十字弓行動
Strategic bombing campaigns in Europe的一部分
La Coupole, Helfaut-Wizernes.jpg
The La Coupole V-2 launch site at Wizernes in France was a "Heavy Crossbow" target
日期August 1943 – May 2, 1945[1]
地点
结果 Delayed use but "limited effect" on production[2]
参战方
 英國
 美國
 加拿大
 納粹德國
兵力

Sorties/bomb tonnage:
Total: 68,913/122,133[3]
RAF: 19,584/72,141

USAAF: 17,211/30,350[4]

V-1 launches: 9,251
[5] (8000 targeting London,[6] 2,448 targetting Antwerp)[7]

V-2 launches:
1664Flag of Belgium.svg,
1402Flag of the United Kingdom.svg,
76Flag of France.svg,
19Flag of the Netherlands.svg,
11Flag of Germany.svg (Ludendorff Bridge)
伤亡与损失

Airmen/aircraft:

British civilians killed/
seriously injured:

  • V-1: 6,184/17,981
  • V-2: 2,754/6,523[5]
French civilians: 3,600 killed, about 10,000 wounded by Allied bombing[9]

V-1: 4,261 destroyed
by AA guns (1,878),
barrage balloons (231),
and fighters (1,846):[10][a]

V-2: 51/117 killed/wounded,
48/69 rockets/vehicles
damaged[11]

参考资料编辑

  1. ^ Collier 1976, p. 136.
  2. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为D-Olier的参考文献提供内容
  3. ^ Krause, Merric E. From theater missile defense to anti-missile offensive actions: A near-term strategic approach for the USAF (PDF) (Thesis). School of Advanced Airpower Studies, Air University: 11. June 1988 [2008-10-23]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2008-10-29).  已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助)
  4. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为AllWorldWars的参考文献提供内容
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Charman, Terry, The V Weapons Campaign Against Britain 1944–1945 (PDF), Imperial War Museum, [April 9, 2013], (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2014-03-19)  已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助)
  6. ^ von Braun, Wernher (Estate of); Ordway III, Frederick I. & Dooling, David Jr. Space Travel: A History 1st. New York: Harper & Row. 1985: 105 [1975]. ISBN 0-06-181898-4. 
  7. ^ Cooksley 1979, p. 82.
  8. ^ Russell, Edward T, Leaping the Atlantic Wall: Army Air Forces Campaigns in Western Europe, 1942–1945 (PDF), The U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II, United States Air Force History and Museums Program: 27, 1999 [March 19, 2014], (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2004-06-27)  已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助)
  9. ^ Zaloga 2018, p. 92.
  10. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Hillson的参考文献提供内容
  11. ^ Collier 1976, p. 135.
  12. ^ 新奇新聞|NOWnews 今日新聞網. [2013-06-12]. (原始内容存档于2012-01-11). 


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