单级入轨

单级入轨(英語:Single-stage-to-orbit,缩写:SSTO)是从地面发射一个航天器直接入轨,不抛弃燃料箱、发动机或其他主要部件,属于可重複使用發射系統的一种。[1]目前,尚没有从地球发射的单级入轨系统被制成,实际使用的都是一次性使用运载系统多级火箭[2]

冒险之星是一个单级入轨项目提案。

理论上,使用化学能驱动的火箭发动机能实现从地球的单级入轨。但挑战在于:轨道速度要超过7,400米每秒(27,000公里每小時;17,000英里每小時)、起飞阶段克服地球稠密大气层阻力再入阶段的热防护,综合成本的竞争力。[3]

在其他质量较小且没有大气层的天体表面发射单级入轨航天器是现实可行的,如火星月球阿波罗登月登月舱、苏联的几艘无人自动登月返回的月球号系列探测器等都实现了月面的单级入轨。

历史编辑

早期概念编辑

 
ROMBUS概念图

二十世纪中叶前,对太空旅行的研究还很少。1960年代,这种工艺的一些早期概念设计开始涌现。[4]

单级入轨最早的概念之一是Douglas Aircraft Company英语Douglas Aircraft Company工程师Philip Bono英语Philip Bono提出的一次性的一级轨道太空卡车(One stage Orbital Space Truck)[5][6]。另也提出了一个名为“ROOST”的可重用版本。

参见编辑

进一步阅读编辑

  • Andrew J. Butrica: Single Stage to Orbit - Politics, Space Technology, and the Quest for Reusable Rocketry. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 2004, ISBN 9780801873386.

参考文献编辑

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  5. ^ Philip Bono and Kenneth William Gatland, Frontiers of Space, ISBN 0-7137-3504-X
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外部链接编辑