古馬其頓語

馬其頓王國公元前10世紀至前4世紀的語言

古馬其頓語希臘語Αρχαία μακεδονική γλώσσα)是古馬其頓的語言,在公元前第一个千年的馬其頓王國被使用,屬於印歐語系。古马其顿语在公元前四世纪逐渐消亡,马其顿王国的统治阶层采用阿提卡希腊语,后来发展为希腊化时期通用语共通希腊语,其基础语言便是阿提卡希腊语,这使得古马其顿语逐渐式微。[3]至希腊化时代或是罗马帝国时期,古马其顿语完全消亡,并被共通希腊语所取代。[4]

古馬其頓語
区域馬其頓
語言滅亡西元1世紀
語系
語言代碼
ISO 639-3xmk
语言学家列表xmk

現存的銘文顯示古馬其頓除了希臘文之外沒有其他的書寫文字[5]。最近的金石學發現認為古馬其頓語是希臘西北部的一系列方言合稱[6]

尽管都属于印欧语系,古馬其頓語与马其顿语是两种不同的语言。

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ B. Joseph (2001): "Ancient Greek". In: J. Garry et al. (eds.) Facts about the World's Major Languages: An Encyclopedia of the World's Major Languages, Past and Present.
  2. ^ Blažek, Václav (2005). "Paleo-Balkanian Languages I: Hellenic Languages"
  3. ^ Eugene N. Borza (1992) In the Shadow of Olympus: The Emergence of Macedon页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆), p. 94 (citing Hammond); G. Horrocks, Greek: A History of the Language and its Speakers (1993), ch.4.1.
  4. ^ Engels, Johannes. Macedonians and Greeks. Roisman, Joseph; Worthington, Ian (编). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. Wiley-Blackwell. 2010: 94. ISBN 978-1-4051-7936-2 (英语). However, with respect to the discussion in this chapter it seems to be quite clear that (a) ancient Macedonian at some date during the Hellenistic or Roman imperial era was completely replaced by koine Greek and died out, and (b) that ancient Macedonian has no relationship with modern Macedonian which together with Bulgarian belongs to the eastern branch of southern Slavonic languages. 
  5. ^ Lewis, D. M.; Boardman, John. The Cambridge ancient history, 3rd edition, Volume VI. Cambridge University Press. 2000: 730 [2013-02-18]. ISBN 978-0-521-23348-4. (原始内容存档于2014-09-28). 
  6. ^ Sarah B. Pomeroy, Stanley M. Burstein, Walter Donlan, Jennifer Tolbert Roberts, A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture, Oxford University Press, 2008, p.289