国有媒体

国有媒体(英語:State Media / State-Controlled Media / State-Owned Media)是指在财务和(或)编辑上被一个国家直接或间接控制的大众媒体机构[1]。国有媒体可能是该国或该地区唯一的新闻获取渠道,也有可能需要和其他商业或非商业的媒体机构竞争。需要注意的是,国有媒体不应该与那些由国家资助的公共媒体相混淆,后者是“由国家或地方政府资助却不在编辑自由上受其严格控制”[1]

概况简介编辑

概念定义编辑

决定因素编辑

后果影响编辑

国有媒体很容易导致诸如新闻自由新闻客观性等复杂问题。根据《民主期刊》的克里斯托弗·沃克(Christopher Walker)的说法,“威权极权国家的媒体”,例如:中国的中央电视台俄罗斯RT电视台委内瑞拉南方电视台都在利用本国内的新闻审查制度和对外广播国家的民主开放制度的差异性获得媒体优势[2]

国有媒体列表编辑

俄罗斯:今日俄罗斯电视台 中国:中国国际电视网络

新闻自由编辑

 
2020年全球新闻自由指数[3]

民权及政治权利编辑

经济权编辑

相关条目编辑

参考资料编辑

脚注编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Webster, David. Building Free and Independent Media. Air War College Media Relations (美国空军). 1992-08 [2020-08-08]. (原始内容存档于2004-03-15). 
  2. ^ Christopher Walker. The Authoritarian Threat: The Hijacking of “Soft Power”. 民主期刊. 2016-01, 27 (1): 49–63 [2020-08-08]. (原始内容存档于2020-09-22). 
  3. ^ 2020 World Press Freedom Index. 无国界记者. 2020. (原始内容存档于2017-02-01). 

文献编辑

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  • Djankov, Simeon; La Porta, Rafael; Lopez-de-Silanes & Shleifer, Andrei. Regulation of Entry页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆). The Quarterly of Economics, 117(1), pp. 1–37. 2002.
  • Djankov, Simeon; McLeish, Caralee; Nenova, Tatiana & Shleifer, Andrei. Who owns the media?页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆 Journal of Law and Economics, 46, pp. 341–381, 2003.
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  • Lewis, Arthur. The Theory of Economic Growth. Routledge, 2003 (originally published 1955). ISBN 978-0-415-31301-8.
  • Myrdal, Gunnar. The Political Element in the Development of Economic Theory. Transaction Publishers, 1990 (originally published 1953). ISBN 978-0-88738-827-9.
  • Price, Monroe. Media and Sovereignty: The Global Information Revolution and Its Challenge to State Power. MIT Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-262-66186-7.
  • Price, Monroe; Rozumilowicz, Beata & Verhulst, Stefaan. Media reform: democratizing the media, democratizing the state. Routledge, 2002. ISBN 978-0-415-24353-7.
  • Sen, Krishna; Lee, Terence. Political regimes and the media in Asia. Routledge, 2008. ISBN 978-0-415-40297-2.
  • Simon, Joel. Hot on the Money Trail. Columbia Journalism Review, 37(1), pp. 13–22, 1998.
  • Silverbatt, Art; Zlobin, Nikolai. International communications: a media literacy approach. M.E. Sharpe, 2004. ISBN 978-0-7656-0975-5.
  • Stability Pact Anti-Corruption Initiative, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Anti-corruption measures in South Eastern Europe: civil society's involvement. OECD Publishing, 2002. ISBN 978-92-64-19746-6.