国际象棋开局

用於開始國際象棋比賽的一系列動作

國際象棋的最初階段稱為「開局」。剛開始的幾個回合棋手主要關心自己的棋子是否從起始點移動到有利的位置。遊戲的初期,白方發動的一連串經過檢驗的步法稱為「開局」,而黑方回應的步法稱為「防禦」。為人熟知的開局走法有好幾十種,而其中又有好幾百種被賦予名稱的變著。《牛津國際象棋大辭典英语The Oxford Companion to Chess》列出了1,327有名稱的開局與變著[1],從平和的局面型走法,到激烈的戰術型走法通通包括在內。

abcdefgh
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
b8 black knight
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
e8 black king
f8 black bishop
g8 black knight
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
d7 black pawn
e7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white pawn
d2 white pawn
e2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
c1 white bishop
d1 white queen
e1 white king
f1 white bishop
g1 white knight
h1 white rook
8
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh
國際象棋的起始局面

一連串正規的步法稱為「開局步法」,一些工具書如《國際象棋開局百科》有對開局步法做了編目索引。這些工具書通常利用代數記譜法、開局樹狀圖、或開局理論表將一連串的步法呈現給讀者。如果開局偏離了「開局步法」,之後的變化就稱為「out of book」。某些開局的主線已研究到20到25步之多。有一些甚至還分析到了第30或35步,像是古印度防禦西西里防禦中的舍文寧根變著、以及納依道夫變著。職業棋手們花費數年的時間來研究開局,而隨著開局理論不斷演進,許多棋手甚至終其一生都在研究開局。

開局中創新的走法稱為「創新理論」。有些棋手會保留這種創新的走法,直到正式比賽時才施展出來,這就叫做「預備變著」,在高等級比賽中通常會有意想不到的效果。開局分類可參見国际象棋开局列表

開局的目標编辑

開局方法千變萬化,但會有幾個常見的目標[2]:讓棋子到可以影響棋局的位置、控制中心、保護國王的安全、避免兵出現弱勢、棋子適當的調度、創造比對手有利的優勢。

高等級選手的目標编辑

第一,在高等級的比賽中,白方開局的目標通常是以保持優勢為主,而黑方的目標則是以消除白方優勢為主。因為白方有先行的優勢,假如黑方刻意模仿白方走子,白方永遠會比黑方早一步攻擊。

第二,自從1950年 開始,另一個開局目標逐漸受到重視。根據國際大師Jeremy Silman英语Jeremy Silman的觀點,開局的目標是製造雙方的不平衡,這種不平衡進而影響到中局的情勢及棋手的進攻計畫。

第三個目標則是用來輔助前兩個目標,那就是將局面誘導到自己熟悉且偏愛的佈局,這通常是靠顛倒行棋順序來達到目的。

參考資料编辑

  1. ^ Hooper, David; Whyld, Kenneth. The Oxford Companion to Chess 2. Oxford University Press. 1992: 461–480. ISBN 0-19-280049-3. 
  2. ^ Fine, R. Ideas Behind the Chess Openings. Random House. 1990 [1st. Pub. 1943]. ISBN 0-8129-1756-1. 

延伸阅读编辑

Nick de Firmian is a three-time U.S. Chess Champion. Often called "MCO-14" or simply "MCO", this is the 14th edition of the work that has been the standard English language reference on chess openings for a century. This book is not suitable for beginners, but it is a valuable reference for club and tournament players.
Garry Kasparov is the former World Chess Champion from 1985 to 2000 and Raymond Keene is a former British chess champion. This book is often called "BCO 2" and is intended as a reference for club and tournament players.
John Nunn is a former British Chess Champion and a noted chess author. This book is often called "NCO" and is a reference for club and tournament players.
This is an advanced, technical work in five volumes published by Chess Informant of Belgrade. http://www.sahovski.com/页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) It analyzes openings used in tournament play and archived in Chess Informant since 1966. Instead of using the traditional names for the openings and descriptive text to evaluate positions, Informator has developed a unique coding system that is language independent so that it can be read by chess players around the world without requiring translation. Called the "ECO", these volumes are the most comprehensive reference for professional and serious tournament players.
  • Scheerer, Christoph. The Greatest Ever Chess Opening Ideas. Everyman Chess. 2008. ISBN 978-1-85744-561-9. 
  • Seirawan, Yasser. Winning Chess Openings. Everyman Chess. 2003. ISBN 1-85744-349-7.  An elementary/introductory book.
  • Stefan Djuric, Dimitri Komarov, & Claudio Pantaleoni, Chess Opening Essentials (4 volumes)
  • Summerscale, Aaron. A Killer Chess Opening Repertoire. Globe Pequot. 1999. ISBN 978-1-85744-519-0. 
  • van der Sterren, Paul, Fundamental Chess Openings, Gambit, 2009, ISBN 978-1-906454-13-5
  • Ward, Chris. The Queen's Gambit Accepted. Batsford. 1999. ISBN 0-7134-8467-5. 
  • Watson, John. Mastering the Chess Openings 1. Gambit. 2006. ISBN 978-1-904600-60-2.  (Three chapters of general opening principles; open and semi-open games)
  • Watson, John. Mastering the Chess Openings 2. Gambit. 2007. ISBN 978-1-904600-69-5.  (Closed games and Indian defenses)
  • Watson, John. Mastering the Chess Openings 3. Gambit. 2008. ISBN 978-1-904600-98-5.  (English Opening)
  • Watson, John. Mastering the Chess Openings 4. Gambit. 2010. ISBN 978-1-906454-19-7.