國朝處置萬象事宜錄

國朝處置萬象事宜錄》(越南語Quốc Triều Xử Trí Vạn Tượng Sự Nghi Lục),又稱《國朝處置萬象事宜》,越南阮朝歷史文獻,由乂安官員吳高朗於1827年以漢文編撰。該書提及1827年萬象國王阿弩(即昭阿努)反對暹羅國操縱而起兵,因失利而向阮朝求援,阮朝出兵護送阿弩返國的史實。因老撾、泰國(暹羅)有關該次戰事的記錄稀少或經過改寫,而本書提供的史料可作補充,並對研究當時印支半島(即中南半島)國際關係有參考價值。

國朝處置萬象事宜錄》封面
國朝處置萬象事宜錄
越南語表記?
國語字 Quốc Triều Xử Trí Vạn Tượng Sự Nghi Lục
汉喃 國朝處置萬象事宜錄

成書的背景编辑

國朝處置萬象事宜錄》的編撰,與印支半島(又稱中南半島)的地緣政治有關。越南鄰近的萬象王國(在今老撾),在18世紀、19世紀初時被暹羅國(今泰國)所控制。到1820年代,有「最後的戰士君王」之稱[1]的萬象國王阿弩(即阿努。書中又稱作「佋阿弩」)不甘於暹羅操縱,乃於1826年(明命七年)起兵襲擊暹人,一度抵達暹羅中部的呵叻沙拉武里等地。其後暹王拉瑪三世(書中稱作「佛王」)策動反攻,於1827年(明命八年)擊敗萬象軍,阿弩逃到越南乂安(即義安)。[2]阿弩向阮朝求助,明命帝得悉後,派軍護送阿弩回萬象。阿弩返國後再與暹人作戰,但又遭失敗,再向阮廷要求增援。明命見阿弩再時常出戰但無所獲,便不再出兵協助,最後阿弩失敗,被俘送暹羅,其反抗暹人的行動亦以失敗告終。[3]

本書作者吳高朗(又作高朗、黎高朗),字令甫,古藤人,號圓齋。[4]在阮廷派軍到萬象時,吳高朗為乂安鎮書記,故此亦參與其事,做過「繕草傳文」[5]、將哀牢文件「演成華字(漢字)」[6]等工作。1827年10月18日(明命八年農曆八月二十八日),吳高朗受禮部之命,將阮朝處理萬象事宜的資料,編成報告,亦即本書,並由阮廷定命為《國朝處置萬象事宜錄》。[7]

內容概述编辑

關於本書的內容,「越南漢喃文獻目錄資料庫系統檢索」裡有簡明的描述,說它是阮朝「對暹羅討伐萬象一事的處置,即讓萬象向越南求救」。[8]

從現存的內容可知,它的卷一起自1827年(明命八年)農曆五月,乂安鎮向阮廷通報「暹羅兵追擊萬象國王(阿弩)」[9],萬象人「懇請我朝廷容許居駐」。[10]阮朝君臣經過商議後,決定派兵「將萬象國王及所屬人民,安插于貢蠻三峝地分」,又「擇地駐扎,嚴加巡防」,以備暹軍來犯。[11]在出兵之初,阮朝明命帝持觀望態度,曾說過暹羅對萬象的征伐「尚屬傳聞,未為確鑿」[12],並由於越軍在該地「間有患病,或物故者」,明命覺得「虛費機籌」而憂惱。[13]其後經過調查,證實萬象國土確已被攻佔,「暹兵扎在萬象、樂凡地面」,越方乃在乂安為萬象國王眷屬修築公館安置。[14]

卷二提到,由於萬象形勢嚴峻,阮廷遂進行外交調停,在該年底「投書暹將,並護送蠻人(萬象人)歸國」。[15]另外還有暹羅將領臘蘇帕伐迪(Phraya Ratchasuphawadi,書中稱作「醜頗禍𠫾」)給越方的書信,信中提出「阿弩為臣不忠,萌心背叛,致暹王遣兵追拿」[16]芒族部落「為阿弩之所逼勒,阿弩若此過動,致各芒困苦弗獲寧居」等指控。後面部份的內容,現存抄本已缺。[17]

史料價值编辑

據東南亞史學者Mayoury、Pheuiphanh Ngaosrivathana所提及,老撾留下的阿弩王起兵資料甚少,而暹羅軍隊取得的老撾相關文獻也少,而暹羅的文獻記錄又曾被改寫。而《國朝處置萬象事宜錄》把阿弩事件按日記事,資料充足可信,可補史料不足,並讓後世讀者從中了解阮氏朝廷曼谷王朝及老撾人等勢力如何作出決策的情況。[18]此外,本書還可反駁後世政客的老撾「受越南控制」的觀點,相反老撾大部分地區被曼谷王朝直接控制,阮廷對此也無可奈何。[19]

在本書裡還可一瞥當時印支地區的生活習俗,如書中記載阮廷向阿弩王贈予的米、豬隻、魚露,暹羅將領招待越南使節的乾果、糯稻等資料,可反映當時生產情況。[20]

流傳情況编辑

本書的流傳情況,從1884年的《內閣目錄》裡可知它原本著錄有五冊,為1868年集賢院購進。[21]在後世有抄本流傳,頁數165頁。[8]法屬時期法國遠東學院取得抄本一份,內有165頁(兩卷),編號為「A. 949」,並製作微縮膠卷副本。後來北越(越南民主共和國)取得該抄本,收藏在越南社會科學委員會東南亞研究部。1977年,越南社會科學委員會委任學者Do Thi Hao譯成越南語版本。而微縮膠卷副本則被法國遠東學院收藏。此外,南越時期(越南共和國)亦有學者收藏本書的抄本及越譯手抄本。[22]

東南亞史學者Mayoury、Pheuiphanh Ngaosrivathana指出,此書在後世的推廣和引用不多,原因之一是它的文字艱深,不易閱讀,並在2001年將本書譯成英語,並收錄兩卷本的漢文手抄本的(卷一完整,卷二有缺),成書出版,書名為《Vietnamese Source Materials concerning The 1827 Conflict between the Court of Siam and the Lao Principalities》,由日本東洋文庫東亞文化研究中心出版。[23]

引用來源编辑

  1. ^ Grant Evans: A Short History of Laos: The Land in Between., p.25. Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest NSW, Australia.
  2. ^ 姆·耳·馬尼奇·瓊賽《老撾史》,福建人民出版社,172─182。
  3. ^ 陳重金(即陳仲金)《越南通史》(即《越南史略》),北京商務印書館,337─338。
  4. ^ 馮承鈞《西域南海史地考證論著彙輯·安南書錄》,231頁;越南漢喃文獻目錄資料庫系統檢索─書目詳細資料:《國朝處置萬象事誼錄》页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆)。
  5. ^ Ngo Cao Lang: The Journal of Our Imperial Court's Actions with regard to the Incident Involving the Kingdom of Ten Thousand Elephants, in Vietnamese Source Materials concerning The 1827 Conflict between the Court of Siam and the Lao Principalities, p.223.  The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, The Toyo Bunko.
  6. ^ Ngo Cao Lang: The Journal of Our Imperial Court's Actions with regard to the Incident Involving the Kingdom of Ten Thousand Elephants, in Vietnamese Source Materials concerning The 1827 Conflict between the Court of Siam and the Lao Principalities, p.190.  The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, The Toyo Bunko.
  7. ^ >Mayoury and Pheuiphanh Ngaosrivathana: Vietnamese Source Materials concerning The 1827 Conflict between the Court of Siam and the Lao Principalities, p.24-25.  The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, The Toyo Bunko.
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 越南漢喃文獻目錄資料庫系統檢索─書目詳細資料:《國朝處置萬象事誼錄》. [2015-03-13]. (原始内容存档于2015-04-02). 
  9. ^ Ngo Cao Lang: The Journal of Our Imperial Court's Actions with regard to the Incident Involving the Kingdom of Ten Thousand Elephants, in Vietnamese Source Materials concerning The 1827 Conflict between the Court of Siam and the Lao Principalities, p.266.  The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, The Toyo Bunko.
  10. ^ Ngo Cao Lang: The Journal of Our Imperial Court's Actions with regard to the Incident Involving the Kingdom of Ten Thousand Elephants, in Vietnamese Source Materials concerning The 1827 Conflict between the Court of Siam and the Lao Principalities, p.265.  The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, The Toyo Bunko.
  11. ^ Ngo Cao Lang: The Journal of Our Imperial Court's Actions with regard to the Incident Involving the Kingdom of Ten Thousand Elephants, in Vietnamese Source Materials concerning The 1827 Conflict between the Court of Siam and the Lao Principalities, p.264.  The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, The Toyo Bunko.
  12. ^ Ngo Cao Lang: The Journal of Our Imperial Court's Actions with regard to the Incident Involving the Kingdom of Ten Thousand Elephants, in Vietnamese Source Materials concerning The 1827 Conflict between the Court of Siam and the Lao Principalities, p.242.  The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, The Toyo Bunko.
  13. ^ Ngo Cao Lang: The Journal of Our Imperial Court's Actions with regard to the Incident Involving the Kingdom of Ten Thousand Elephants, in Vietnamese Source Materials concerning The 1827 Conflict between the Court of Siam and the Lao Principalities, p.230.  The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, The Toyo Bunko.
  14. ^ Ngo Cao Lang: The Journal of Our Imperial Court's Actions with regard to the Incident Involving the Kingdom of Ten Thousand Elephants, in Vietnamese Source Materials concerning The 1827 Conflict between the Court of Siam and the Lao Principalities, p.225.  The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, The Toyo Bunko.
  15. ^ Ngo Cao Lang: The Journal of Our Imperial Court's Actions with regard to the Incident Involving the Kingdom of Ten Thousand Elephants, in Vietnamese Source Materials concerning The 1827 Conflict between the Court of Siam and the Lao Principalities, p.190.  The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, The Toyo Bunko.
  16. ^ Ngo Cao Lang: The Journal of Our Imperial Court's Actions with regard to the Incident Involving the Kingdom of Ten Thousand Elephants, in Vietnamese Source Materials concerning The 1827 Conflict between the Court of Siam and the Lao Principalities, p.187.  The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, The Toyo Bunko.
  17. ^ Ngo Cao Lang: The Journal of Our Imperial Court's Actions with regard to the Incident Involving the Kingdom of Ten Thousand Elephants, in Vietnamese Source Materials concerning The 1827 Conflict between the Court of Siam and the Lao Principalities, p.183.  The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, The Toyo Bunko.
  18. ^ Mayoury and Pheuiphanh Ngaosrivathana: Vietnamese Source Materials concerning The 1827 Conflict between the Court of Siam and the Lao Principalities, p.18-19.  The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, The Toyo Bunko.
  19. ^ Mayoury and Pheuiphanh Ngaosrivathana: Vietnamese Source Materials concerning The 1827 Conflict between the Court of Siam and the Lao Principalities, p.20-21.  The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, The Toyo Bunko.
  20. ^ Mayoury and Pheuiphanh Ngaosrivathana: Vietnamese Source Materials concerning The 1827 Conflict between the Court of Siam and the Lao Principalities, p.23.  The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, The Toyo Bunko.
  21. ^ 馮承鈞《西域南海史地考證論著彙輯·安南書錄》,231頁。
  22. ^ Mayoury and Pheuiphanh Ngaosrivathana: Vietnamese Source Materials concerning The 1827 Conflict between the Court of Siam and the Lao Principalities, p.24-25.  The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, The Toyo Bunko.
  23. ^ Mayoury and Pheuiphanh Ngaosrivathana: Vietnamese Source Materials concerning The 1827 Conflict between the Court of Siam and the Lao Principalities, The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, The Toyo Bunko.

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