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城邦 (阿兹特克)

表示阿兹特克帝国三个组成部分——特斯科科特诺奇蒂特兰特拉科潘三座城邦的象形文字。

城邦古典纳瓦特尔语āltepētl [aːɬ.ˈté.peːtɬ],意为“水岭”)是前哥伦布时期西班牙征服时期,阿兹特克文明的政治实体。通常,其划分基于地区与族群。在英语中,āltepētl与city-state(其意也为城邦)等同。[1]

纳瓦特尔语学者利萨·索萨英语Lisa Sousa斯塔福德·普尔英语Stafford Poole詹姆斯·洛克哈特英语James Lockhart (historian)称:

将某个区域或整个世界的人民,设想为城邦形态的集合,并经常以其语言中的专有名词强调之,此为典型的纳瓦式思想。[2]

较之英语中的词语“城邦(city-state)”,他们更认同纳瓦特尔语中城邦的表述。很多关于瓜达卢佩圣母的文献常用“āltepētl”表示墨西哥城(Ciudad de México),但这与其本意是不相称的。

玛雅文明中的“cah”和米斯特克文明的“ñuu”之概念与其相似。

例子编辑

引注编辑

  1. ^ Smith 1997 p. 37
  2. ^ Sousa et al. 1998, p. 36

参考文献编辑

García Martínez, Bernardo. Community Kingdoms: Central Mexico (Nahua). (编) David Carrasco. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures: The Civilizations of Mexico and Central America vol. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2001: 238–239. ISBN 0-19-510815-9. OCLC 44019111. 
Gibson, Charles. The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule: A History of the Indians of the Valley of Mexico, 1519–1810. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1983 [1964]. ISBN 0-8047-0912-2. OCLC 9359010. 
Lockhart, James. The Nahuas After the Conquest: A Social and Cultural History of the Indians of Central Mexico, Sixteenth Through Eighteenth Centuries. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1996 [1992]. ISBN 0-8047-2317-6. OCLC 24283718. 
Noguez, Xavier. Altepetl. (编) David Carrasco. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures: The Civilizations of Mexico and Central America vol. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2001: 12–13. ISBN 0-19-510815-9. OCLC 44019111. 
Sousa, Lisa; Poole, Stafford; Lockhart, James (编). The Story of Guadalupe: Luis Laso de la Vega's Huei tlamahuiçoltica of 1649. UCLA Latin American studies, vol. 84; Nahuatl studies series, no. 5. Stanford & Los Angeles, CA: Stanford University Press, University of California, Los Angeles Latin American Center Publications. 1998. ISBN 0-8047-3482-8. OCLC 39455844. 
Smith, Michael. The Aztecs. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. 1997. ISBN 0-631-23015-7.