大理石紋螯蝦

大理石紋螯蝦(德語:Marmorkrebs;英語:Marbled crayfish)是一種單性生殖淡水龍蝦,於1995年首次在德國的水族飼養界發現。該品種與遍布美國弗羅里達州的英語:龍紋螯蝦羅馬化:Procambarus fallax相近。目前並無已知的大理石紋螯蝦自然棲地。根據其中一名初始販售者的說法,大理石紋螯蝦的原本來源是「完全就是令人困惑且不可靠」(totally confusing and unreliable)。[5]這種螯蝦被發現至今仍不到30年,但已成為歐洲與馬達加斯加等地的淡水水域隨處都能見到的入侵種。[6][4][1][7][5]

大理石紋螯蝦Infobox info icon2.svg
Procambarus fallax forma virginalis.jpg
Adult marmorkrebs
科学分类 编
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 节肢动物门 Arthropoda
亚门: 甲殼亞門 Crustacea
纲: 软甲纲 Malacostraca
目: 十足目 Decapoda
科: 螯虾科 Cambaridae
属: 原蝲蛄属 Procambarus
种: 大理石紋螯蝦 P. fallax
变种: 大理石紋螯蝦 P. f. var. virginalis
三名法
Procambarus fallax var. virginalis
Martin et al., 2010[1]
Marbled crayfish Marmorkrebs Procambarus fallax forma virginalis map countries Europe.png
大理石紋螯蝦在野外被發現的歐洲國家。 它也出現在馬達加斯加日本[2][3]
異名

Procambarus virginalis[4]

模式生物编辑

大理石紋螯蝦是唯一已知只能由孤雌生殖繁殖的十足目甲殼綱動物[6]所有的個體都是雌性,後代在遺傳上與母體相同。[4][8]大理石紋螯蝦為DNA三倍體動物,[4][9]這可能是其為孤雌生殖繁殖的主要原因。大理石紋螯蝦因此成為多倍體形態的模型。[4]

因為大理石紋螯蝦在遺傳上是相同的,易於照顧,並且繁殖速度很快,所以它們是潛在的模式生物,特別是用於研究發育生物學[10]然而,相比其他研究生物而言較長的發育時間(幾個月)是一個主要的缺點。[11]

2018年,基因組測序為後續研究提供了重要基礎。[12]

入侵物種编辑

大理石紋螯蝦引起了人們的關注,成為一種潛在的入侵物種[6]因為只需要一個個體就可以建立一個新的種群,而且他們可以以很高的比例複製。此後,它們被引入三大洲的自然生態系統。 它們在以下國家在野外被發現:

出現原因可能是被野放或逃離水族館。大理石紋螯蝦是國際寵物貿易中分佈最廣泛的小龍蝦種類之一。[25]

雖然歐洲野生大理石紋螯蝦的初步報告只包括幾個獨立研究,[14]但通報發現大理石紋螯蝦種群的歐洲國家數量正在增加。[26] 歐盟制定了“全面禁止這些物種(包括野生大理石紋螯蝦)的擁有,貿易,運輸,生產和釋放”。[27][28][29][30]

馬達加斯加首都食品市場中發現這種螯蝦,[19]引起地方當局的關注。[31]

儘管北美在野外沒有發現大理石紋螯蝦種群,但它們在北美寵物貿易中廣泛分佈在愛好者中。[32][33] 由於擔心引入可能造成的損害,密蘇里州田納西州全面禁止這些物種(包括野生大理石紋螯蝦)的擁有,貿易,運輸,生產和釋放”。[34][35]

參考编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Peer Martin; Nathan J. Dorn; Tadashi Kawai; Craig van der Heiden; Gerhard Scholtz. The enigmatic Marmorkrebs (marbled crayfish) is the parthenogenetic form of Procambarus fallax (Hagen, 1870). Contributions to Zoology. 2010, 79 (3): 107–118 [2018-03-06]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2011-05-21). 
  2. ^ 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 Pârvulescu, Lucian; Togor, Andrei; Lele, Sandra-Florina; Scheu, Sebastian; Șinca, Daniel; Panteleit, Jörn. First established population of marbled crayfish Procambarus fallax (Hagen, 1870) f. virginalis (Decapoda, Cambaridae) in Romania (PDF). BioInvasions Records. 2017, 6 (4): 357–362 [2018-02-09]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2021-01-12). 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 D. M. Holdich & M. Pöckl. Invasive crustaceans in European inland waters. Francesca Gherardi (编). Biological Invaders in Inland Waters: Profiles, Distribution, and Threats. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. 2007: 29–75. ISBN 978-1-4020-6029-8. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-6029-8_2. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Vogt, Günter; Falckenhayn, Cassandra; Schrimpf, Anne; Schmid, Katharina; Hanna, Katharina; Panteleit, Jörn; Helm, Mark; Schulz, Ralf; Lyko, Frank. The marbled crayfish as a paradigm for saltational speciation by autopolyploidy and parthenogenesis in animals. Biology Open. 2015, 4 (11): 1583–1594. PMC 4728364 . PMID 26519519. doi:10.1242/bio.014241. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Günter Vogt, Laura Tolley & Gerhard Scholtz. Life stages and reproductive components of the Marmorkrebs (marbled crayfish), the first parthenogenetic decapod crustacean. Journal of Morphology. 2004, 261 (3): 286–311. doi:10.1002/jmor.10250. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 Gerhard Scholtz; Anke Braband; Laura Tolley; André Reimann; Beate Mittmann; Chris Lukhaup; Frank Steuerwald; Günter Vogt. Parthenogenesis in an outsider crayfish. Nature. 2003, 421 (6925): 806. PMID 12594502. doi:10.1038/421806a. 
  7. ^ Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. The crayfishes of Florida. University of Florida Publication: Biological Series. 1942, 3 (2): 1–179. 
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  10. ^ Frederike Alwes & Gerhard Scholtz. Stages and other aspects of the embryology of the parthenogenetic Marmorkrebs (Decapoda, Reptantia, Astacida). Development Genes and Evolution. 2006, 216 (4): 169–184. doi:10.1007/s00427-005-0041-8. 
  11. ^ Günter Vogt. Suitability of the clonal marbled crayfish for biogerontological research: A review and perspective, with remarks on some further crustaceans. Biogerontology. 2010, 11 (6): 643–669. PMID 20582627. doi:10.1007/s10522-010-9291-6. 
  12. ^ Gutekunst, Julian; Andriantsoa, Ranja; Falckenhayn, Cassandra; Hanna, Katharina; Stein, Wolfgang; Rasamy, Jeanne; Lyko, Frank. Clonal genome evolution and rapid invasive spread of the marbled crayfish. Nature Ecology & Evolution. 2018-02-05 [2018-03-06]. ISSN 2397-334X. PMID 29403072. doi:10.1038/s41559-018-0467-9. (原始内容存档于2020-04-17). 
  13. ^ Jiří Patoka; Miloš Buřič; Vojtěch Kolář; Martin Bláha; Miloslav Petrtýl; Pavel Franta; Robert Tropek; Lukáš Kalous; Adam Petrusek; Antonín Kouba. Predictions of marbled crayfish establishment in conurbations fulfilled: Evidences from the Czech Republic. Biologia. 2016, 71 (12): 1380–1385 [2018-03-06]. doi:10.1515/biolog-2016-0164. (原始内容存档于2018-02-10). 
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 Peer Martin; Hong Shen; Gert Füllner; Gerhard Scholtz. The first record of the parthenogenetic Marmorkrebs (Decapoda, Astacida, Cambaridae) in the wild in Saxony (Germany) raises the question of its actual threat to European freshwater ecosystems. Aquatic Invasions. 2010, 5 (4): 397–403. doi:10.3391/ai.2010.5.4.09. 
  15. ^ Christoph Chucholl & Michael Pfeiffer. First evidence for an established Marmorkrebs (Decapoda, Astacida, Cambaridae) population in Southwestern Germany, in syntopic occurrence with Orconectes limosus (Rafinesque, 1817). Aquatic Invasions. 2010, 5 (4): 405–412. doi:10.3391/ai.2010.5.4.10. 
  16. ^ Lőkkös A, Müller T, Kovács K, Várkonyi L, Specziár A, Martin P. The alien, parthenogenetic marbled crayfish (Decapoda: Cambaridae) is entering Kis-Balaton (Hungary), one of Europe's most important wetland biotopes. Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems. 2016, 417 (417): 16. doi:10.1051/kmae/2016003. 
  17. ^ Francesco Nonnis Marzano, Massimiliano Scalici, Stefania Chiesa, Francesca Gherardi, Armando Piccinini & Giancarlo Gibertini. The first record of the marbled crayfish adds further threats to fresh waters in Italy. Aquatic Invasions. 2009, 4 (2): 401–404. doi:10.3391/ai.2009.4.2.19. 
  18. ^ Tadashi Kawai; M. Takahata (编). The Biology of Freshwater Crayfish. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press. 2010. ISBN 978-4-8329-8194-2. 
  19. ^ 19.0 19.1 Julia P. G. Jones; Jeanne R. Rasamy; Andrew Harvey; Alicia Toon; Birgit Oidtmann; Michele H. Randrianarison; Noromalala Raminosoa; Olga R. Ravoahangimalala. The perfect invader: a parthenogenic crayfish poses a new threat to Madagascar's freshwater biodiversity. Biological Invasions. 2008, 11 (6): 1475–1482. doi:10.1007/s10530-008-9334-y. 
  20. ^ Boris Lipták; Agata Mrugała; Ladislav Pekárik; Anton Mutkovič; Daniel Gruľa; Adam Petrusek & Antonín Kouba. Expansion of the marbled crayfish in Slovakia: beginning of an invasion in the Danube catchment?. Journal of Limnology. 2016. doi:10.4081/jlimnol.2016.1313. 
  21. ^ P. Bohman; L. Edsman; P. Martin; G. Scholtz. The first Marmorkrebs (Decapoda: Astacida: Cambaridae) in Scandinavia (PDF). BioInvasions Records. 2013, 2 (3): 227–232. doi:10.3391/bir.2013.2.3.09. 
  22. ^ RA Novitsky; MO Son. The first records of Marmorkrebs [Procambarus fallax (Hagen, 1870) f. virginalis] (Crustacea, Decapoda, Cambaridae) in Ukraine. Ecologica Montenegrina. 2016, 5: 44–46 [2018-03-06]. (原始内容存档于2019-09-25). 
  23. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Taiwan的参考文献提供内容
  24. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Macau的参考文献提供内容
  25. ^ Zen Faulkes. The global trade in crayfish as pets. Crustacean Research. 2015, 44: 75–92. doi:10.18353/crustacea.44.0_75. 
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  27. ^ REGULATION (EU) No 1143/2014 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 22 October 2014 on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species. EUR-Lex. [2018-02-09]. 
  28. ^ COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) 2016/1141 of 13 July 2016 adopting a list of invasive alien species of Union concern pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. EUR-Lex. [2018-02-09]. 
  29. ^ COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) 2017/1263 of 12 July 2017 updating the list of invasive alien species of Union concern established by Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/1141 pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. EUR-Lex. [2018-02-09]. 
  30. ^ Zen Faulkes. Has the European Union regulated Marmorkrebs?. Marmorkrebs blog. February 17, 2016 [May 4, 2016]. (原始内容存档于2017-07-04). 
  31. ^ Klaus Heimer. Invasion of self-cloning crayfish alarms Madagascar. Deutsche Presse-Agentur wire story. 18 August 2010 [2018-03-06]. (原始内容存档于2021-01-12). 
  32. ^ Zen Faulkes. The spread of the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish, Marmorkrebs (Procambarus sp.), in the North American pet trade. Aquatic Invasions. 2010, 5 (4): 447–450. doi:10.3391/ai.2010.5.4.16. 
  33. ^ Zen Faulkes. Marmorkrebs (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis) are the most popular crayfish in the North American pet trade. Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems. 2015, 416 (416): 20. doi:10.1051/kmae/2015016. 
  34. ^ Anonymous. Conservation Action Meeting of the March 2010 Conservation Commission. Missouri Department of Conservation. 17 May 2010 [November 28, 2010]. (原始内容存档于2010-09-23). 
  35. ^ Zen Faulkes. Sell your Marmorkrebs, Tennesseans. Marmorkrebs blog. January 25, 2016 [January 25, 2016]. (原始内容存档于2021-01-16). 
引用错误:在<references>标签中name属性为“Jimenez”的参考文献没有在文中使用

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