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奥克兰三角线位于加州奥克兰地下,是湾区捷运系统里的重要区间。列车可通过此三角线前往[1][2][3]:45–46[4]

  1. 北行-12街/奥克兰市中心站(里奇蒙方向 或 匹兹堡/湾角方向)
  2. 西行-奥克兰西站(旧金山方向)
  3. 南行-美丽湖站(弗雷蒙 或 都柏林/普莱森顿方向)

因为所有列车都会经过这里,所以此三角线是湾区捷运系统里最重要的区间之一,但也因为复杂的结构成为了全线速度的瓶颈。[4][5]

舊金山灣區捷運系統
安条克eBART停车场
安條克英语Antioch station (BART)
匹茲堡中心英语Pittsburg Center station
eBART换乘月台
匹茲堡/灣角
北康科德/馬丁內斯英语North Concord/Martinez station
里士满停车场
美鐵
里士满英语Richmond station (California)
康科德英语Concord station (BART)
康科德
艾塞利托北英语El Cerrito del Norte station
车辆段
艾塞利托廣場英语El Cerrito Plaza station
愉快山/康特拉科斯塔中心英语Pleasant Hill/Contra Costa Centre station
核桃溪英语Walnut Creek station
北伯克利英语North Berkeley station
拉斐特英语Lafayette station (BART)
伯克利下城英语Downtown Berkeley station
奧林達英语Orinda station
阿什比英语Ashby station (BART)
石嶺英语Rockridge station
麥克阿瑟英语MacArthur station (BART)
南行换乘
19街奧克蘭英语19th Street Oakland station
北行换乘
12街奧克蘭市中心英语12th Street Oakland City Center station
美麗湖英语Lake Merritt station
西奧克蘭英语West Oakland station
福祿維爾英语Fruitvale station
竞技场
美鐵
杜立德停车场英语Doolittle Maintenance and Storage Facility
计划中
旧金山渡轮大厦
BSicon LOGO SFmuni.svg
內河碼頭
奧克蘭國際機場英语Oakland International Airport station
奧克蘭國際機場 (美國)
BSicon LOGO SFmuni.svg
蒙哥馬利街
聖利安卓英语San Leandro station
BSicon LOGO SFmuni.svg
跑華街
貝菲爾英语Bay Fair station
换乘
BSicon LOGO SFmuni.svg
市政中心/聯合國廣場
卡斯楚谷英语Castro Valley station
16街米慎英语16th Street Mission station
西都柏林/普萊森頓英语West Dublin/Pleasanton station
24街米慎英语24th Street Mission station
都柏林/普萊森頓英语Dublin/Pleasanton station
BSicon LOGO SFmuni.svg
葛連公園英语Glen Park station
利弗莫爾
計劃中
海沃德英语Hayward station (BART)
换乘
BSicon LOGO SFmuni.svg
巴爾波亞公園
南海沃德英语South Hayward station
海沃德
戴利城英语Daly City station
综合维修基地
聯合市
科爾馬英语Colma station
費利蒙英语Fremont station (BART)
科尔马停车场
伊丽莎白湖隧道
伊文頓英语Irvington station (BART)
计划中
南舊金山英语South San Francisco station (BART)
暖泉/南費利蒙英语Warm Springs/South Fremont station
换乘
聖布魯諾英语San Bruno station (BART)
加拉維拉英语Calaveras station
计划中
米爾皮塔斯英语Milpitas station
(2019年)
舊金山國際機場
旧金山国际机场旅客捷运系统
舊金山國際機場
貝里耶沙/北聖何塞英语Berryessa/North San Jose station
(2019年)
加州火車
密爾布瑞
明矾岩英语Alum Rock station
规划中
聖何塞下城英语Downtown San Jose station
规划中
聖何塞狄里登英语San Jose Diridon station
加州火車圣克拉拉轻轨美鐵
规划中
聖塔克拉拉
加州火車美鐵
规划中
圣塔克拉拉停车场
规划中
注:BSicon BHF2+4 yellow.svg eBART采用標準軌柴油动车组BSicon BHF2+4 brown.svg  競技場-奧克蘭國際機場線制式为自动导轨运输英语Automated guideway transit
BSicon uBHF.svg 其他线路制式均为1676毫米宽轨DC1000V第三轨供电BSicon utvBHF.svg 市場街地鐵隧道上层为旧金山轻轨

结构编辑

 
奥克兰三角线的结构简图。图中的CX、C2和C1轨道分别对应12街/奥克兰中心站的1、2、3号月台。

大部分轨道的设计速度是27英里每小時(43公里每小時)。由于设计失误,控制中心规定的限速是18英里每小時(29公里每小時)。虽然失误随后被修正,基于安全考虑,这个限速依然不变。[4] 唯一“高速”的通道是从奥克兰西前往12街/奥克兰市中心的轨道(图中MX→CX),允许的速度达到36英里每小時(58公里每小時)。[4]

另外,MX轨道和M1轨道之间也有渡线,加上麦克阿瑟站附近繁多的岔道,在特殊情况下(如2018年金州勇士胜利游行时),CX→MX→M1轨道也会被作为下行前往旧金山的通道,以提高通行的效率,同时北上的列车将只使用M2→C1轨道。

历史编辑

奥克兰三角线曾多次发生事故,而由于其重要性,每次事故都会波及整个系统。有专家曾提出建立多个通道来降低三角线故障所带来的影响。

事故编辑

  • 2000年2月11日,正值早高峰,由于电线短路,列车自动控制系统停摆,经过奥克兰三角线的所有列车被迫以手动驾驶和低至5~10英里每小時(8.0~16.1公里每小時)的速度通过岔道,工人也被派出手动切换岔道方向。低效的操作模式使列车大幅晚点。[6]
  • 2009年2月4日,两辆北行的列车在前往12街/奥克兰市中心站的途中(图上M2→C1与A2→C1),在岔道口刮蹭,两车部分车厢脱轨。由于其中一车在手动模式,本应起保护作用的列车自动控制系统未能生效,来阻止事故的发生。[7] 当列车被移开后,湾区捷运方面发布了一份说明,表示手动控制的列车超过了等待区,[8] NTSB随后也派出调查员协助。[9]
  • 2017年1月4日,一辆西行往旧金山的10节编组列车在抵达奥克兰西站时控制失灵,没有停在指定位置,只有7节车厢进站,也无法再次启动。事件导致前往旧金山的列车皆受到影响,乘客也不得不改用轮渡、拼车、或巴士来跨过海湾。事后有湾区官员呼吁加建第二条过海隧道,以避免类似的情况[10]

未来发展编辑

有专家曾提出建立连接麦克阿瑟站、奥克兰竞技场站与海湾隧道之间的快速通道,既可以避免潜在的大面积延误,也可以在途中增加一个杰克伦敦广场英语Jack London Square英语Oakland – Jack London Square station[11]。另有计划指出,可以在三角线区间建立一个短途终点站,既可以增加奥克兰市中心的车站数量,也可以提高市区班次的密度。[12]

来源编辑

  1. ^ Mallett, Zakhary. 2nd Transbay Tube needed to help keep BART on track. San Francisco Chronicle. September 7, 2014 [July 31, 2017]. 
  2. ^ Eric. New Feature: BART Track Map. Transbay Blog. July 23, 2008 [July 31, 2017]. 
  3. ^ Automatic Train Control in Rapid Rail Transit (PDF). Office of Technology Assessment. May 1, 1976 [June 14, 2017]. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 BART Sustainable Communities Operations Analysis (PDF). BART. June 1, 2013 [July 31, 2017]. Station to station running times can identify areas within the system that may be susceptible to delay resulting from either speed / operating restrictions or from infrastructure issues. One of the key locations within the BART system is the Oakland Wye. The Oakland Wye is a multi-level interchange between West Oakland, 12th Street and Lake Merritt stations. BART provided information on the running times between these stations to identify any possible issues with regards route selection, route clearing and secondary delays. The information indicates that actual performance through the Wye is largely consistent with scheduled speeds. As a result, while the Wye does not cause significant delay to operations, it does result in slower overall speeds that could result in longer cycle times. Scheduled run times through this area do include a 10% padding to account for fluctuations in the running times through the Oakland Wye. Running times at other key locations within the BART system are consistent with the scheduled run times; more information can be found in Appendix A2 (a separate document). A previous BART signal system headway and capacity constraint study (Systra, 2012) identified the Oakland Wye is critically important to BART’s current operations and future growth in train service. The underlying signalling is in general well designed, although does have some issues that need to be addressed. The Sequential Occupancy Release System (SORS) overlay, however, was found to have severe and excessive impacts, and in many locations is unnecessarily restrictive. The study found that “SORS could be made to be much less restrictive, and need not be as restrictive as the underlying signal system”. 
  5. ^ crawl speed through the Oakland Wye tunnels..... BART Rage. November 19, 2007 [July 31, 2017]. 
  6. ^ Cabanatuan, Michael. Improperly Fastened Power Cable Blamed for Horrendous BART Delay. San Francisco Chronicle. 11 February 2000 [9 December 2017]. 
  7. ^ Cabanatuan, Michael. BART trains on time, crash site to be cleared. San Francisco Chronicle. 4 February 2009 [9 December 2017]. 
  8. ^ Cabanatuan, Michael. BART operator ran past wait point in collision. San Francisco Chronicle. 5 February 2009 [9 December 2017]. 
  9. ^ NTSB Launches Investigator to Bart Collision (新闻稿). National Transportation Safety Board. 4 February 2017 [9 December 2017]. 
  10. ^ Cabanatuan, Michael; Veklerov, Kimberly; Ravani, Sarah. BART systemwide meltdown after train gets stuck in West Oakland. San Francisco Chronicle. 6 January 2017 [9 December 2017]. 
  11. ^ Cabanatuan, Michael. Building a bigger, better BART / Experts suggest improving the current system before extending it. San Francisco Chronicle. 30 January 2001 [9 December 2017]. 
  12. ^ Cotey, Angela. Bay Area Rapid Transit's push to invest in state of good repair, capacity improvements. Progressive Railroading. July 2012 [11 December 2017].