女王會同樞密院

女王會同樞密院女王會同行政局Queen-in-Council)是英聯邦王國憲法術語,指國家的最高行政機構行使國家行政權,男性君主在位時稱國王會同樞密院國王會同行政局King-in-Council)。

英語術語中的「Council」在英國加拿大聯邦政府指樞密院Privy Council),在其他英聯邦王國和自治州、省(包括加拿大各省)及屬土指相應的行政局Executive Council)。此術語的直接含義是君主以並按照她(他)的樞密院或行政局的建議及准許行使權力。

簡介编辑

在君主直接或間接任命總督、省/州督等代表君主行使行政權的王國及屬土,則“女王會同樞密院”或“行政局”改爲“總督(省/州督)會同樞密院”或“總督(省/州督)會同行政局”(Governor-General-in-Council / Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council / Governor-in-Council等)。在大多數地方,“某地政府”可以作爲當地“君主/總督會同樞密院/行政局”的代名詞使用(但“某地政府”在不同地方也有其他涵義)。

實際上,女王會同樞密院/行政局幾乎毫無例外的實行內閣的決議。内閣是樞密院或行政局下屬的非正式委員會,由資深部長(大臣)組成,通常女王或總督不參加内閣的會議。

女王會同樞密院/行政局發出的命令稱爲“樞密令”或“行政局令”,這類行政命令受司法檢察監督。[1]一些二級立法經由樞密院/行政局令生效。

在取消君主制的前王國或前屬地,有時當地憲政架構會保留類似的概念,例如“總統會同行政局”[2][3]或「行政長官會同行政會議[4]。在一些非英聯邦王國也有類似的概念[5]

參見编辑

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ The Queen on the Application of Louis Olivier Bancoult v. The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, CO/4093/2004 The source of the power to make the Order in Council was the Royal prerogative. Neither Her Majesty nor the members of the Privy Council present that day (which, coincidentally, included me) considered the merits of the Order. The Queen in Council acts upon the advice of a Minister, in the present case, the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth affairs. In reality the order was that of the Secretary of State although, of course, the Queen formally assented to it., s.5 (England and Wales High Court 11 May 2006).
  2. ^ Constituent Assembly of India debates (IV:12)页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆). Parliament of India
  3. ^ Subhash C. Kashyap. "The President's Powers"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆). The Hindu. 25 July 2002
  4. ^ Adaption of Laws (Interpretive Provisions) Ordinance 1998 (Hong Kong)
  5. ^ corporateName=Commonwealth Parliament; address=Parliament House, Canberra. Juliet Edeson "Powers of Presidents in Republics*". www.aph.gov.au. [2020-09-01]. (原始内容存档于2020-05-25) (澳大利亚英语).