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妖魔化(英語:Demonizing the enemy、Demonization of the enemy或Dehumanization of the enemy[1],直譯:政敵妖魔化、政敵非人化)是一种将敌手宣传为只有破坏性目标的邪恶侵略者的国家政治宣传技巧[2] 妖魔化是最古老的宣传技巧,旨在激发对敌人的仇恨使之更易被打击,起到保护和动员盟友,使敌人沮丧的效果。[3]

基本准则编辑

由于术语妖魔化的频繁误用, 学者已不再分析它的可能语气。这就是为什么朱尔斯·博伊科夫英语Jules Boykoff定义了妖魔化的四个准则:[4]

  1. 媒体和国家都使用框架来描绘主要在道德层面的所谓的敌人的固有本性。
  2. 敌人的性格是以摩尼教的方式描绘的, 正如正义与邪恶的较量。
  3. 国家是这种妖魔化描绘的起源。
  4. 没有来自国家的重大反诉。

历史编辑

在历史上,妖魔化敌人是惯用宣传技巧。修昔底德记录了古希腊时期妖魔化敌人的例子。[5]

菲利普·奈特利英语Phillip Knightley认为妖魔化敌方(首个敌对势力领导人和随后的敌对个人)成为西方媒体英语Western media的可预测模式,最后阶段是暴行。[6]

二战期间, 美国国务院和美国其他国家机构在批准后分发了载有敌方妖魔化和挥舞国旗的爱国主义宣传纪录片。[7]

个人妖魔化编辑

如果具体到个人,则将敌方妖魔化就更容易进行,例如在一战期间威廉二世被俄国大众媒体妖魔化。[8]

后果编辑

我认为避免威胁和使用侮辱性语言是男人谨慎行事的标志,因为这两件事都不会剥夺敌人的力量,但第一件事让他更加警惕,而另一个则加剧了他对你的仇恨,使他更加勤奋地设计伤害你的手段。

将敌人妖魔化的战略不可避免地导致了暴行的恶性循环,许多作家都对此进行了阐述,其中包括卡尔·冯·克劳塞维茨[9]将敌人妖魔化使得外交解决途径不可行,不可避免地导致了战争或关系恶化。[10]尤其是把敌人描绘成邪恶力量,更容易激起杀心。[11]

参见编辑

参考资料编辑

  1. ^ Dower, Nigel. The Ethics of War and Peace. Polity. 7 July 2009: 91. ISBN 978-0-7456-4168-3. ...the demonization or dehumanization of the enemy... 
  2. ^ Danielle Rowell. The Power of Ideas: A Political Social-Psychological Theory of Democracy, Political Development and Political Communication. Universal-Publishers. October 2011: 162. ISBN 978-1-61233-769-2. State propaganda models are tactical strategies that employ enemy demonization techniques. The state promotes the idea that the threat (that is, tangible or intangible) is an evil aggressor whose sole goal is the destruction of the status quo. 
  3. ^ Conserva, Henry T. Propaganda Techniques. AuthorHouse. 1 February 2003: 3. ISBN 978-1-4107-0496-2. The oldest trick of the propagandist is to demonize and dehumanize the hated other or others and make the enemy a ... 
  4. ^ Jules Boykoff. Beyond bullets: the suppression of dissent in the United States. AK Press英语AK Press. 2007: 192. ISBN 978-1-904859-59-8. 
  5. ^ Jonathan J. Price. Thucydides and Internal War. Cambridge University Press. 19 July 2001: 127 [29 August 2013]. ISBN 978-1-139-42843-9. It is a banal fact that political leaders of nations fighting wars habitually demonize the enemy.... Hellenic speakers who strive to demonize and conceptually alienate other Hellenes.... 
  6. ^ Steve Thorne. The Language of War. Routledge. 12 April 2006: 93 [6 December 2013]. ISBN 978-0-203-00659-7. In an article published in The Guardian (4 October 2001), Philip Knightley points out: The way wars are reported in the western media follows a depressingly predictable pattern: stage one, the crisis; stage two, the demonisation of the enemy's leader, stage three, the demonization of enemy as individuals; and stage four, atrocities. 
  7. ^ Scott, Ian. In Capra's Shadow: The Life and Career of Screenwriter Robert Riskin. University Press of Kentucky. 1 January 2006: 169 [24 December 2013]. ISBN 0-8131-7135-0. They included scenes of enemy demonization and flag-waving patriotism, much in the vein of documentaries being prepared within the State Department and other bodies. 
  8. ^ Heretz, Leonid. Russia on the Eve of Modernity: Popular Religion and Traditional Culture under the Last Tsars. Cambridge University Press. 28 February 2008: 204. ISBN 978-1-139-47066-7. 
  9. ^ George Kassimeris; John Buckley. The Ashgate Research Companion to Modern Warfare. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 28 March 2013: 284 [29 August 2013]. ISBN 978-1-4094-9953-4. When official doctrine and guidance demonize the enemy and play on soldiers' fears, atrocities become inevitable'. ... As Carl von Clausewitz noted in On War, when either side in a conflict adopts such a strategy, demonization inevitably followed by attrocities... and thus the vicious cycle of savage war endlessly repeats until one side ultimately prevails. 
  10. ^ Hall Gardner. American Global Strategy and the 'war on Terrorism'. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 2005: 16 [29 August 2013]. ISBN 978-1-4094-9589-5. 
  11. ^ Michael Bhatia. Terrorism and the Politics of Naming. Routledge. 18 October 2013: 150 [6 December 2013]. ISBN 978-1-317-96986-0. Demonisation... In other words, portraying the enemy as malicious and repulsive creates feelings that makes killings easier. 

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