安娜·科穆宁娜

安娜·科穆宁娜希臘語Ἄννα Κομνηνή,1083年12月1日-1153年),東羅馬帝國皇帝阿歷克塞一世的女兒,也是歐洲歷史上最早的女性歷史學家之一,她根據父親阿歷克塞一世的一生著有《阿歷克塞傳英语Alexiad》(希臘語Ἀλεξιάς),這是研究拜占庭帝國歷史的重要史料之一。

安娜·科穆宁娜
Anna comnena, alexiade, forse da costantinopoli, XII secolo (pluteo 70.2).jpg
出生1083年12月1日
君士坦丁堡大皇宫紫色寝宫英语Porphyra Chamber
逝世1153年 (70岁)
君士坦丁堡满圣宠者诞神女修道院
配偶小尼基弗鲁斯·布林尼乌斯
子嗣阿莱克修斯·科穆宁
约翰·杜卡斯
伊琳娜·杜卡伊娜
玛利亚·布林奈娜·科穆宁娜
王朝科穆宁家族
父親阿莱克修斯一世
母親伊琳娜·杜卡伊娜英语Irene Doukaina

生平编辑

安娜·科穆宁娜1083年出生于君士坦丁堡的紫色寝宫中。在其早年的生活中,安娜接受到了良好的教育,她学习了文学、修辞和科学,饱读古希腊哲学,还在导师的帮助下学习了历史、医学、天文学,数学。 其父阿历克塞一世最初选定米海尔七世的儿子君士坦丁·杜卡斯为其继承人,并让他与安娜定下了婚约。但后来长子约翰出生,王位继承权就转给了约翰。君士坦丁·杜卡斯去世之后,1097年,安娜与尼基弗鲁斯·布林尼乌斯英语Nikephoros Bryennios the Younger结婚,安娜与其丈夫、皇后伊琳娜开始出来反对阿历克塞一世的继承人计划。安娜与皇后试图说服阿历克塞一世将皇位转让给布林尼乌斯,但阿历克塞一世还是设法将皇位传给约翰,而约翰也靠着自己的能力保住了皇位继承人的位置。于是安娜开始策划反对其弟弟的阴谋,后来阴谋败露,安娜被迫退出政争。在退出宫廷斗争之后,安娜专心于历史的研究,并仿照古代的风格写出了《阿历克塞传》。南斯拉夫的拜占庭历史研究者奥斯特洛格尔斯基评价这本书是“拜占庭人文主义的杰出见证”[1],并且为后世研究拜占庭历史提供了宝贵的材料。

注释编辑

  1. ^ 奥斯特洛格尔斯基《拜占庭国家史》299页

资料来源编辑

一手资料编辑

  • Niketas Choniates, O City of Byzantium: Annals of Niketas Choniates (Michigan: Wayne State University Press, 1984)
  • Anna Comnena (2001). Dawes, Elizabeth A., ed. "The Alexiad页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆)." The Internet Medieval Sourcebook. Fordham University. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  • Anna Komnene, The Alexiad, translated by E.R.A. Sewter, ed. Peter Frankopan, (New York: Penguin, 2009)
  • Georgios Tornikes, 'An unpublished funeral oration on Anna Comnena', English translation by Robert Browning, in Aristotle Transformed: The Ancient Commentators and Their Influence, ed. R. Sorabji (New York: Cornell University Press, 1990)

二手资料编辑

  • Carolyn R. Connor, Women of Byzantium (Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2004)
  • Dalven, Rae (1972). Anna Comnena. New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc.
  • Frankopan, Peter (2002). "Perception and Projection of Prejudice: Anna Comnena, the Alexiad, and the First Crusade." Chapter 5 in Edgington, Susan B.; Lambert, Sarah. Gendering the Crusades. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Gouma-Peterson, Thalia. "Gender and Power: Passages to the Maternal in Anna Komnene's Alexiad." In Gouma-Peterson, Thalia. Anna Komnene and Her Times. New York: Garland Publishing Inc. p. 107-125. ISBN 0815336454
  • Hanawalt, Emily Albu (1982). "Anna Komnene". In Strayer, Joseph R. ed. The Dictionary of the Middle Ages. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 303-304. ISBN 0684167603
  • Hill, Barbara (2000). "Actions Speak Louder Than Words: Anna Komnene's Attempted Usurpation". In Gouma-Peterson, Thaila. Anna Komnene and Her Times. New York: Garland Publishing Inc. p. 45-62. ISBN 0815336454
  • Jongh, Suzanne Wittek-De (1953). "Le César Nicéphore Byennois, l'historien, et sese ascendants". Byzantion. 23: 463-468., cited in Dion C. Smythe (2006), Garland, Lynda ed. "Middle Byzantine Family Values and Anna Komnene's Alexiad". Byzantine Women: Varieties of Experience 800-1200. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Limited. ISBN 9780754657378
  • Lynda Garland & Stephen Rapp, "Maria ‘of Alania’: Woman & Empress Between Two Worlds," Byzantine Women: Varieties of Experience, ed. Lynda Garland, (New Hampshire: Ashgate, 2006). ISBN 9780754657378
  • Kahzdan, Alexander. Komnene, Anna. 亚历山大·卡日丹 (编). 牛津拜占庭辭典. 牛津: 牛津大学出版社. 1991. ISBN 0-19-504652-8. 
  • Angeliki Laiou, "Introduction: Why Anna Komnene?" Anna Komnene and Her Times, ed. Thalia Gouma-Peterson, (New York: Garland, 2000). ISBN 0815336454.
  • Larmour, David (2004). Margolis, Nadia; Wilson, Katherina M., eds. "Comnene, Anna". Women in the Middle Ages: an encyclopedia. 1. Westport: Greenwood Press. p. 203-205. ISBN 0313330174.
  • Macrides, Ruth (2000). "The Pen and the Sword: Who Wrote the Alexiad?." In Gouma-Peterson, Thaila. Anna Komnene and Her Times. New York: Garland Publishing Inc. p. 63-82. ISBN 0815336454
  • Neville, Leonora (2016). Anna Komnene: the life and work of a medieval historian. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0190498177.
  • Reinsch, Diether R. (2000). "Women’s Literature in Byzantium?—The Case of Anna Komnene." Translated from German by Thomas Dunlap. In Anna Komnene and Her Times, ed. Thalia Gouma-Peterson. New York: Garland Publishing Inc.
  • Dion C. Smythe, "Middle Byzantine Family Values and Anna Komnene’s Alexiad," Byzantine Women: Varieties of Experience 800-1200, ed. Lynda Garland, (New Hampshire: Ashgate, 2006). ISBN 9780754657378.
  •   Baynes, T.S. (编), Anna Comnena, Encyclopædia Britannica 2 9th, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons: 59–60, 1878 
  •   Chisholm, Hugh (编). Anna Comnena. 大英百科全書 2 (11th ed.). 劍橋大學出版社: 59. 1911. 
  •   Shahan, Thomas Joseph. Anna Comnena. 天主教百科全書. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. 

延伸阅读编辑

  • Georgina Buckler, Anna Comnena: A Study, Oxford University Press, 1929. ISBN 0-19-821471-5
  • Anna Comnena, The Alexiad页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆, translated by Elizabeth A. Dawes in 1928
  • Anna Comnena, The Alexiad of Anna Comnena, edited and translated by E.R.A. Sewter. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969. (This print version uses more idiomatic English, has more extensive notes, and mistakes).
  • John France, "Anna Comnena, the Alexiad and the First Crusade页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆)", Reading Medieval Studies v.9 (1983)
  • Ed. Kurtz, 'Unedierte Texte aus der Zeit des Kaisers Johannes Komnenos, in Byzantinische Zeitschrift 16 (1907): 69–119 (Greek text of Anna Comnene’s testament)
  • Thalia Gouma-Peterson (ed.), Anna Komnene and her Times, New York: Garland, 2000. ISBN 0-8153-3851-1.
  • Jonathan Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades, Bloomsbury, 2nd ed., 2014. ISBN 978-1-78093-767-0
  • Barbara Hill, "Actions speak louder than words: Anna Komnene’s attempted usurpation," in Anna Komnene and her times (2000): 46–47.
  • Levin, Carole, et al. Extraordinary Women of the Medieval and Renaissance World. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2000.
  • Magoulias, Harry J. (编). O City of Byzantium: Annals of Niketas Choniatēs. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. 1984 [2018-06-08]. ISBN 978-0-8143-1764-8. (原始内容存档于2016-06-24).  5–6.
  • Ellen Quandahl and Susan C. Jarratt, "'To recall him…will be a subject of lamentation': Anna Comnene as rhetorical historiographer" in Rhetorica: A Journal of the History of Rhetoric (2008): 301–335. JSTOR 10.1525/rh.2008.26.3.301
  • Vlada Stankovíc, "Nikephoros Bryennios, Anna Komnene and Konstantios Doukas. A Story of Different Perspectives," in Byzantinische Zeitschrift (2007): 174.
  • Paul Stephenson, "Anna Comnena's Alexiad as a source for the Second Crusade?", Journal of Medieval History v. 29 (2003)
  • Dion C. Smythe, "Middle Byzantine Family Values and Anna Komnene’s Alexiad," in Byzantine Women: Varieties of Experience (2006): 125–127.
  • Dion C. Symthe, "Outsiders by taxis perceptions of non-conformity eleventh and twelfth-century literature," in Byzantinische Forschungen: Internationale Zeitschrift für Byzantinistik (1997): 241.
  • Varzos, Konstantinos. Η Γενεαλογία των Κομνηνών [The Genealogy of the Komnenoi] (PDF) A. Thessaloniki: Centre for Byzantine Studies, University of Thessaloniki. 1984 (希腊语). [永久失效連結]
  • Anna Comnena. 新国际百科全书. 1905. 
  •   Anna Comnena. The American Cyclopædia. 1879. 

外部链接编辑