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布隆伯斯洞窟

(重定向自布隆伯斯洞穴

坐标34°24′50.77″S 21°13′03.68″E / 34.4141028°S 21.2176889°E / -34.4141028; 21.2176889

布隆伯斯洞窟位置圖

布隆伯斯洞窟是位於南非開普敦以東約300公里的一個石灰岩溶洞。因發現了有7萬年歷史的刻有抽象設計和織紋的赭石珠子、貝殼,和8萬年歷史的骨制工具而成為著名的考古工地。另外亦發現了一些關於14萬年前貝殼和捕魚的證據。洞穴於1991年首次被發掘,考古工作自1997年起定期進行至今[1]

參考資料编辑

  1. ^ Henshilwood, Christopher Stuart. Holocene prehistory of the Southern Cape, South Africa : excavations at Blombos Cave and the Blombosfontein Nature Reserve. Oxford: Archaeopress. 2008. 

延伸阅读编辑

  • d’Errico, F. & Henshilwood, C.S. 2007. Additional evidence for bone technology in the southern African Middle Stone Age. Journal of Human Evolution 52:142–163.
  • Henshilwood, C.S. 2006. Modern humans and symbolic behaviour: Evidence from Blombos Cave, South Africa. In Origins (ed. G. Blundell). Cape Town: Double Storey: 78–83.
  • Henshilwood, C. S. & Marean, C. W. 2006. Remodelling the origins of modern human behaviour. In : The Prehistory of Africa: Tracing the lineage of modern man (ed. H. Soodyall). Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball Publishers: 31–46.
  • Henshilwood, C.S. & d’Errico, F. 2005. Being modern in the Middle Stone Age: Individuals and innovation. In The Individual hominid in context: Archaeological investigations of Lower and Middle Palaeolithic landscapes, locales and artefacts. (eds. C. Gamble & M. Porr).Routledge (Taylor Francis): 244–264
  • Henshilwood, C. S. 2005. Stratigraphic integrity of the Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave. In From Tools to Symbols. From Early Hominids to Modern Humans. (eds. F. d’Errico & L. Backwell). Johannesburg, Witwatersrand University Press: 441–458.
  • d’Errico, F., Henshilwood, C., Vanhaeren, M., van Niekerk. K. 2005. Nassarius kraussianus shell beads from Blombos Cave: Evidence for symbolic behaviour in the Middle Stone Age. Journal of Human Evolution 48:3–24.
  • Henshilwood, C.S. 2004. The Origins of Modern Human Behaviour: Exploring the African evidence. In Combining the Past and the Present: Archaeological perspectives on society. (eds. T. Oestigaard, N. Anfinset and T. Saetersdal). BAR International Series 1210: 95–106.
  • Henshilwood, C.S., d’Errico, F., Vanhaeren, M., van Niekerk, K., Jacobs, Z. 2004. Middle Stone Age shell beads from South Africa. Science, 384:404.
  • Henshilwood, C.S. & Marean, C.W. 2003. The origin of modern human behaviour: A review and critique of models and test implications. Current Anthropology 44 (5): 627–651
  • d’Errico F., Henshilwood C., Lawson G., Vanhaeren M., Soressi M., Bresson F., Tillier A.M., Maureille B., Nowell A., Backwell L., Lakarra J.A., Julien M. 2003. The search for the origin of symbolism, music and language: a multidisciplinary endeavour. Journal of World Prehistory, 17 (1): 1–70.
  • Henshilwood, C.S., d’Errico, F., Yates, R., Jacobs, Z., Tribolo, C., Duller, G.A.T., Mercier N., Sealy, J.C., Valladas, H., Watts, I. & Wintle, A.G. 2002. Emergence of Modern Human Behaviour: Middle Stone Age engravings from South Africa. Science 295:1278–1280.
  • Grine, F.E. & Henshilwood, C.S. 2002. Additional Human Remains from Blombos Cave, South Africa: (1999–2000 excavations). Journal of Human Evolution 42: 293–302.
  • Henshilwood, C.S., Sealy, J.C., Yates, R.J., Cruz-Uribe, K., Goldberg, P., Grine, F.E., , Klein, R.G., Poggenpoel, C., van Niekerk, K.L., Watts, I. 2001a. Blombos Cave, southern Cape, South Africa: Preliminary report on the 1992 – 1999 excavations of the Middle Stone Age levels. Journal of Archaeological Science 28(5): 421–448.
  • Henshilwood, C.S., d’Errico, F.E., Marean, C.W., Milo, R.G., Yates, R. 2001b. An early bone tool industry from the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave, South Africa: implications for the origins of modern human behaviour, symbolism and language. Journal of Human Evolution 41:631–678.
  • d’Errico, F., Henshilwood, C.S., & Nilssen, P. 2001. An engraved bone fragment from ca. 75 kyr Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa: implications for the origin of symbolism . Antiquity. 75, 309–18.
  • Grine, F.E., Henshilwood, C.S. & Sealy, J.C. 2000. Human remains from Blombos Cave, South Africa: (1997–1998 excavations). Journal of Human Evolution, 37: 755–765.
  • Henshilwood, C.S. 1997 Identifying the collector: Evidence for human consumption of the Cape dune mole-rat, Bathyergus suillus, from Blombos Cave, southern Cape, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:659–662.
  • Henshilwood, C.S. & Sealy, J.C. 1997. Bone artefacts from the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave, southern Cape, South Africa. Current Anthropology 38(5):890–895.
  • Henshilwood, C. S. 1996. A revised chronology for the arrival of pastoralism in southernmost Africa: new evidence of sheep at ca. 2000 b.p. from Blombos Cave, South Africa. Antiquity 70:945–949.
Dating the Blombos deposits
  • Jacobs, Z. Duller, G.A.T. Henshilwood, C.S. Wintle, A.G. 2006. Extending the chronology of deposits at Blombos Cave, South Africa, back to 140 ka using optical dating of single and multiple grains of quartz. Journal of Human Evolution 51: 255–273.
  • Tribolo, C., Mercier, N., Selo, M., Joron, J-L., Reyss, J-L., Henshilwood, C., Sealy, J. & Yates, R. 2006. TL dating of burnt lithics from Blombos Cave (South Africa): further evidence for the antiquity of modern human behaviour. Archaeometry, 48 (2): 341–357.
  • Jacobs, Z. Duller, G.A.T., Wintle, A.G. & Henshilwood, C.S. 2006.Extending the chronology of deposits at Blombos Cave, South Africa, back to 140 ka using optical dating of single and multiple grains of quartz. Journal of Human Evolution 51: 255–273.
  • Jacobs, Z., Wintle, A. G. & Duller, G. A. T. (2003a). Optical dating of dune sand from Blombos Cave, South Africa: I—multiple grain data. J. Hum. Evol. 44, 599 – 612.
  • Jacobs, Z., Duller, G. A. T. & Wintle, A. G. (2003b). Optical dating of dune sand from Blombos Cave, South Africa: II—single grain data. J. Hum. Evol. 44, 613 – 625.

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