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一張十七世紀的通緝令,十名男性遭阿姆斯特丹當局以性悖軌罪名通緝
獸交也是性悖軌行為的一種,圖為20世纪初法国画家爱德华-亨利·阿夫里尔所绘的《牧童与羊》

性悖轨(英語:sodomy,所多瑪)源自中世紀基督教神學中對非屬自然法性行為的指稱,一般是指男性与男性之间的肛交行为[1][2][3]。也可以指女性与女性之间的性行为、男性与女性之间的肛交、口交行为,或人类与动物之间的性行為[4]。凡是人類非生殖性的性行為(non-coital sexual acts),包括自慰手交口交肛交避孕性行為等都包含在內[5][6]

至今还有一些国家将性悖轨行为定性为犯罪,也有许多国家已经废除或不予执行相关法律[4][2]

語源编辑

 
所多玛城招致耶和華的怒氣(1781)

sodomy”一词来源于《創世記》中所多瑪與蛾摩拉的故事[7],由彼得達米安英语Peter Damian在11世纪创造,用来取代《聖經》中的“sin of Sodom”, 彼得最初把手淫行为也包括在sodomy这个词的范围内[8]

要解释这个词的来源,得从《圣经》创世纪第18、19章中耶和華亞伯拉罕的对话开始讲起。耶和華认为所多瑪與蛾摩拉(Sodom and Gomorrah,是古代巴勒斯坦的城市)被道德败坏且罪恶深重的人群占据,所以,耶和華告诉亚伯拉罕他要毁掉这两个城市。亚伯拉罕替居住在两个城市的人求情,最后耶和華同意,如果能在城市里找到10个清白的人,他就宽恕整个城市。

于是,耶和華派了两个天使去考察所多玛,他们受到所多玛最后一个清白的人、亞伯拉罕的小舅羅得的热情款待。可是在天使要睡觉的时候,所多玛的居民围住了羅得的房子,要求和羅得的“客人”发生性关系。根據今日歷史學家的考證,過去在新月沃土的居民有對敵軍的俘虜进行強姦的行为,以表示自己把對方打敗的意思。羅得為兩位天使求情,並提議把兩個仍然是处女的女兒任這些人淫辱,但被居民拒絕。於是天使们施法让这些人看不见,但居民摸着黑试图闯进屋里来。于是天使让羅得和他的家人离开了这座城市,然后毁了它。

现代神学家用不同的方式解释圣经,例如將其罪行歸之於對天使(客人)有強姦企圖,以及無待客之道等,不过彼得達米安英语Peter Damian认为是因为“男性间的性欲望”(中世紀的基督教神學認為性行為若不用於生育,包括口交、手淫等,都不合乎耶和華對人類的性規定),致使耶和華毁掉了那两个城市[8]

性悖轨者编辑

在16、17世纪的英国,有性悖轨(sodomy)行为的人被称为性悖轨者(sodomite)。性悖轨者这个词与现代意义上的同性恋homosexual)在語意上是不同的,因為性悖轨性行為不局限於同性恋者身上,更不限於男同性戀者

当西方社会在19世纪开始使用同性恋这一名词的时候,同性间的性行为被重新定义为不同个体之本质特点的正常反应。而且,人们一般认为,同性恋间的性行为带有稳定性和长久性。而性悖轨犯罪者,有点类似于杀人犯和纵火犯,同样被认为不道德,它是一种临时性的性罪行。

參見编辑

参考资料编辑

  1. ^ 美聯邦最高法院研議性悖軌法是否違憲. sodomy,「性悖軌」一詞是參考張志維1996年中外文學第289期中的譯法。Sodomy一般指的是肛交,原意專指男性和男性之間的肛交,在古代是宗教上的處罰行為,sodomy law的出發點也是為了定罪於男同性戀,但制定法律需要一些說辭,因此從教會觀點羅織某些性行為是悖離常軌、不自然(違反生殖原則)的...而且不只存在同性、也可能存在異性、夫妻之間 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Colin Sumner. The Blackwell Companion to Criminology. John Wiley & Sons. 2008: 310–320 [September 21, 2013]. ISBN 0470998954. 
  3. ^ Sullivan, Andrew. Unnatural Law. The New Republic. March 24, 2003 [November 27, 2009]. Since the laws had rarely been enforced against heterosexuals, there was no sense of urgency about their repeal.  (Or Sullivan, Andrew. Unnatural Law. The New Republic. 2003-03-24, 228 (11). )
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Nicholas C. Edsall. Toward Stonewall: Homosexuality and Society in the Modern Western World. University of Virginia Press. 2006: 3–4 [September 21, 2013]. ISBN 0813925436. 
  5. ^ Andrew Sullivan. Unnatural Law. The New Republic. 2003. It's worth noting, then, that from the very beginning sodomy and homosexuality were two categorically separate things. The correct definition of sodomy--then and now--is simply non-procreative sex, whether practiced by heterosexuals or homosexuals. It includes oral sex, masturbation, mutual masturbation, contraceptive sex, coitus interruptus, and anal sex--any sex in which semen does not find its way into a uterus. So it's perhaps unsurprising that Jordan's research doesn't discover the actual nouns "sodomy" and "sodomite" until the eleventh century. The first and most influential polemic against it was the hermit monk Peter Damian's Book of Gomorrah. Given the period's expansive definition of sodomy (it did, after all, include masturbation), it's not surprising that Damian believed it was rife. But his particular fixation--which has persisted in religious teachings ever since--is with same-sex male sodomy. 
  6. ^ Quibian Salazar-Moreno. Weird sex laws in the U.S.. Up until 1962, sodomy was considered a felony and, in some states, oral sex, adultery and masturbation fell under the sodomy laws. 
  7. ^ J. D. Douglas, Merrill C. Tenney. Zondervan Illustrated Bible Dictionary. Zondervan. 2011: 1584 pages [September 21, 2013]. ISBN 0310492351. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Andrew Sullivan. Unnatural Law. The New Republic. 2003. It's worth noting, then, that from the very beginning sodomy and homosexuality were two categorically separate things. The correct definition of sodomy--then and now--is simply non-procreative sex, whether practiced by heterosexuals or homosexuals. It includes oral sex, masturbation, mutual masturbation, contraceptive sex, coitus interruptus, and anal sex--any sex in which semen does not find its way into a uterus. So it's perhaps unsurprising that Jordan's research doesn't discover the actual nouns "sodomy" and "sodomite" until the eleventh century. The first and most influential polemic against it was the hermit monk Peter Damian's Book of Gomorrah. Given the period's expansive definition of sodomy (it did, after all, include masturbation), it's not surprising that Damian believed it was rife. But his particular fixation--which has persisted in religious teachings ever since--is with same-sex male sodomy.