慰藉物

慰藉物(英:Comfort object)或过渡物,是一种物件,用来提供心理上的慰藉,尤其是在不同寻常的環境裡。儿童在就寝时也常需要它们。对孩童来说,慰藉物可能是一块毛巾(日语:安心毛布日语安心毛布),一个填充玩具,等等。[1]

儿童心理发展编辑

 
(a)母亲, (b)孩子 (1)幻想, (2)过渡物

在儿童身心发展中,术语“过渡性物体”经常被使用。它们通常是一种具有心理作用的物件,可以一定程度上代替母亲与孩子的关系。通常的例子有:洋娃娃泰迪熊或者毛巾。

成人后使用编辑

成人也可能使用慰藉物。在一项2008年的研究中,研究者们发现索尼公司的AIBO机器宠物可以减少养老院里老人们的孤独感。[2]

日本的成人有时用慰藉物来应对现代生活中的压力。[3]

用于心理治疗编辑

在西方,有时填充玩具会被装备在消防车警车上,这样可以为经历事故乃至创伤性休克的受害者提供慰藉。

慈善机构常常会为灾难的幸存者提供毛毯,被子等慰藉物。[4]

心理学家正在进行用厚毛毯代替紧身衣的实验。他们发现,有些罹患自闭症的儿童,在接触到慰藉物后,会变得更加平静,不那么激动。[5]

流行文化编辑

查尔斯·舒兹所著的《花生漫画》系列漫画中,安全毯一词被使用并流行开来。奈勒斯·潘贝鲁特把一张毯子叫做“安全与幸福之毯”[6][7]

慰藉物的概念在电视连续剧《老友记》中也被提到。"The One with the Pediatrician"一集中,罗斯提醒钱德勒,他带了一张安全毯到大学里。

参见编辑

參考資料编辑

  1. ^ Iannelli, M.D., Dr. Vincent. Security and Comfort Objects. About.com. Dec 12, 2004 [2009-07-17]. 
  2. ^ Study: Dogs, Robots Cheer Elderly. Fox News. March 3, 2008 [2009-07-17]. (原始内容存档于2009-03-26). 
  3. ^ Security Blankets for Adults Kathi's Mental Health Review, March 25 2002
  4. ^ 存档副本. [2011-08-08]. (原始内容存档于2011-08-13). 
  5. ^ 存档副本. [2014-10-02]. (原始内容存档于2014-10-06). 
  6. ^ http://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/security-blanket.html
  7. ^ http://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/security-blanket.html

扩展阅读编辑

  • Abram, J. (1996). The Language of Winnicott. A Dictionary of Winnicott’s Use of Words, Karnac Books, London
  • Dell’Orto, S. (2003). W.D. Winnicott and the transitional object in infancy. Pediatric Medicine Chirurgic 25(2), 106-112.
  • Mitchell, S. A., Black, M. J. (1995). Freud and beyond: A history of modern psychoanalytic thought. New York: Basic Books.
  • Passman, R. H. (1977). Providing attachment objects to facilitate learning and reduce distress: The effects of mothers and security blankets. Developmental Psychology, 13, 25-28.
  • Passman, R. H. (1987). Attachments to inanimate objects: Are children who have security blankets insecure? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 825-830.
  • Passman, R. H., & Halonen, J. S. (1979). A developmental survey of young children's attachments to inanimate objects. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 134, 165-178.
  • Passman, R. H., & Lautmann, L. A. (1982). Fathers', mothers', and security objects' effects on the responsiveness of young children during projective testing. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 310-312.
  • Winnicott, D.W. (1971). Playing and Reality, Routledge, London
  • Young, R. M. (1989). 'Transitional phenomena: production and consumption', in B. Richards, ed., Crises of the Self: Further Essays on Psychoanalysis and Politics. London: Free Association Books, pp. 57-72.
  • Young, R. M. (1994). Mental Space. London: Process Press.
  • Creature Comforts, People and Their Security Objects by Barbara Collopy O'Halloran and Photographed by Betty Udesen.