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按人口排列的世界城市地区列表

维基媒体列表条目

这是按人口排名的世界连续城市区域的列表。数据来自两个来源:Demographia的“World Urban Areas”研究[1],以及citypopulation.de,由应用摄影测量与地理信息学研究所(Institut für Angewandte Photogrammetrie und Geoinformatik)的Thomas Brinkhoff创建。[2]

定义和问题编辑

Demographia将城市区域(集聚的城市化区域或市中心)定义为在同一劳动力市场(即大都会区)内连续的城市地块,而不考虑行政边界(即市政,城市或公社)。除澳大利亚外,当局使用的最低城市密度定义为每平方公里400人(或美国几乎相同的每平方英里1000人)。Demographia使用地图和卫星照片来估算持续的城市化。Demographia还使用小面积人口数据(如果有的话)将人口估计值与城市化土地面积相匹配。国家人口普查局的数据在澳大利亚、加拿大、法国、挪威、瑞典、英国和美国有提供。在某些情况下不使用印度的城市群的普查数据,因为其组成单位(市)的地理规模通常包括大面积的农村(非城市)地区。

人口估计和土地面积定义的来源分别按下表中的字母编码。

A:根据国家人口普查机构统计的数据(面积或人口);
B:根据地图或卫星照片估计的面积数据;
C:根据下级行政辖区估计的人口数据,例如农村人口的减少;
D:根据联合国城市化估计的城市群人口数据;
E:根据国家权威统计的人口数据估计的城市群人口数据;
F:其他方法估计的人口数据,例如当地的非官方报告;
L:当地官方估计的人口数据;
N:使用人口普查权威数据合算的城区面积。
W:根据世界银行Urban Area 2015 estimate的人口估计值。

除非相邻国家之间可自由流动(包括劳动力),否则城市地区仅限于一个国家。目前,该条件仅在欧盟的一些大陆国家和瑞士之间得到满足(例如法国比利时里尔-科特赖克德国荷兰亚琛-法尔斯德国法国萨尔布吕肯-福尔巴克、瑞士和法国的日内瓦 -安纳马斯,以及瑞士、德国和法国的巴塞尔-罗拉赫-圣路易)。因此,美国加拿大底特律-温莎以及美国和墨西哥圣迭戈-蒂华纳都不被视为单一的城市地区。此外,深圳-香港被视为独立的城市地区,主要是因为两者之间的劳工流动是受限的,前者在中国大陆,后者是中国的特别行政区

城市市区人口前100名编辑

城市地区 Demographia[1] citypopulation.de[2]
2017
排名
2013
排名[3]
城市 国家/地区 人口 面积
(km2)[1]
密度
(/km2)[1]
人口 / 面积
数据来源[1]
排名 人口
1 1 东京横滨首都圈[4]   日本 38,050,000 8,547 4,500 C / B 2 39,800,000 千叶市川崎市前桥市相模原市埼玉市宇都宫市横滨市
2 2 雅加达(大雅加达)[5]   印尼 32,275,000 3,302 9,800 C / B 4 28,900,000 當地稱Jabodetabek,含勿加泗茂物德波丹格朗南丹格朗
3 4 德里國家首都轄區[6]   印度 27,280,000 2,202 12,400 A / B 5 27,200,000 法里达巴德加濟阿巴德古尔冈诺伊达
4 6 马尼拉马尼拉大都会[7]   菲律賓 24,650,000 1,787 13,600 C / B 8 24,100,000 加洛坎市奎松市
5 3 首尔-仁川首都圈[8]   韩国 24,210,000 2,745 8,800 C / B 7 24,800,000 富川市高阳市仁川市城南市水原市
6 5 上海[9]   中国大陆 24,115,000 4,015 6,000 L / B 3 31,100,000 蘇州
7 13 孟买[10]   印度 23,265,000 881 26,400 C / B 9 23,600,000 孟买新孟买Bhiwandi-Nizampur Municipal CorporationKalyan-Dombivali塔那烏爾哈斯訥格爾瓦塞維拉爾
8 8 纽约[11]   美國 21,575,000 11,875 1,700 N / A 11 22,200,000 布里奇波特紐華克纽黑文
9 11 北京[12]   中国大陆 21,250,000 4,144 5,100 L / B 13 20,700,000
10 9 圣保罗[13]   巴西 21,100,000 3,043 6,900 C / B 12 21,900,000 Guarulhos
11 10 墨西哥城(大墨西哥城)[14]   墨西哥 20,565,000 2,370 8,700 C / B 10 22,300,000 Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl, Ecatepec, Naucalpan
12 12 广州佛山(广佛)[15]   中国大陆 19,965,000 3,820 5,200 L / B 1 48,600,000 珠江三角洲地区;含东莞市佛山市, 江门市, 深圳市, 中山市;不含香港
13 21 达卡[16]   孟加拉国 17,425,000 368 47,400 C / B 14 17,900,000
14 14 大阪神户京都京阪神[17]   日本 17,165,000 3,238 5,300 C / B 15 17,800,000 姬路市神户市京都市堺市
15 15 莫斯科[18]   俄羅斯 16,855,000 5,698 3,000 C / B 19 17,100,000
16 16 大开罗英语Greater Cairo   埃及 16,545,000 1,917 8,600 C / B 19 17,100,000 Al-Jizah, Hulwan, Shubra al-Khaymah
17 20 曼谷   泰國 15,975,000 3,043 5,200 C / B 18 17,400,000
18 17 洛杉矶[19]   美國 15,620,000 6,299 2,300 N / A 16 17,700,000 Anaheim, Riverside
19 22 布宜诺斯艾利斯[20]   阿根廷 15,520,000 3,212 4,800 C / B 22 16,000,000 圣胡斯托拉普拉塔
20 19 加尔各答   印度 15,095,000 1,347 11,200 A / B 21 16,200,000 豪拉
21 23 伊斯坦布尔   土耳其 13,995,000 1,360 10,300 C / B 23 14,600,000
22 22 德黑兰[21]   伊朗 13,945,000 1,748 8,000 C / B 25 14,000,000 卡拉季
23 15 拉各斯   奈及利亞 13,910,000 1,502 9,300 W / B 17 17,600,000
24 32 天津[22]   中国大陆 13,655,000 2,771 4,900 L / B 28 11,800,000
25 7 卡拉奇[23]   巴基斯坦 13,255,000 1,036 12,800 C / B 6 25,100,000 Based on population estimates before completion of 2017 Census.
26 24 深圳[15]   中国大陆 12,905,000 1,748 7,400 L / B (已包含于广州)
27 31 金沙萨[24]   刚果(金) 12,350,000 583 21,200 C / B 30 10,900,000
28 26 里约热内卢   巴西 11,990,000 1,917 6,300 C / B 27 12,700,000 新伊瓜苏圣贡萨洛
29 39 成都   中国大陆 11,430,000 1,761 6,500 L / B 38 9,750,000 双流区
30 30 利马   秘魯 11,355,000 894 12,700 C / B 35 10,100,000
31 42 拉合尔   巴基斯坦 11,070,000 896 12,400 C / B 32 10,500,000
32 27 巴黎   法国 10,980,000 2,845 3,700 A / A 29 11,300,000
33 33 班加罗尔   印度 10,920,000 1,166 9,400 A / B 31 10,800,000
34 37 胡志明市(西贡)   越南 10,690,000 1,580 6,800 C / B 44 8,300,000 边和市
35 29 伦敦[25]   英國 10,585,000 1,738 5,600 A / A 24 14,500,000
36 35 金奈   印度 10,555,000 1,049 10,100 A / B 34 10,300,000
37 28 名古屋中京圈[26]   日本 10,105,000 3,885 2,600 C / B 32 10,500,000
38 36 波哥大   哥伦比亚 9,965,000 562 17,700 C / B 39 9,500,000
39 41 海得拉巴   印度 9,595,000 1,230 7,800 A / B 40 9,200,000
40 34 芝加哥[27]   美國 9,160,000 6,856 1,300 N / A 37 9,800,000
41 43 约翰尼斯堡东兰德英语East Rand[28]   南非 9,115,000 2,590 3,500 C / B 26 13,100,000 东兰德伊瓦顿比勒陀利亚Soshanguve索韦托弗里尼欣西兰德
42 48 重庆[29]   中国大陆 8,875,000 6,000 1,479 L / B 54 7,200,000
43 40 台北-桃園[30]   臺灣 8,605,000 1,140 7,600 C / B 41 9,050,000 新北市基隆市桃園市
44 38 东莞[15]   中国大陆 8,340,000 1,619 5,200 L / B (已包含于广州)
45 169 河内   越南 8,140,000 868 9,400 C / B 139 3,450,000
46 60 沈阳[31]   中国大陆 8,095,000 1,502 5,400 C / B 47 7,800,000 抚顺市
47 44 武汉   中国大陆 7,980,000 1,528 5,200 L / B 46 8,100,000
48 47 艾哈迈达巴德   印度 7,880,000 350 22,500 A / B 49 7,650,000
49 529 奥尼沙   奈及利亞 7,850,000 1,965 4,000 W / B 495 1,100,000
50 49 吉隆坡巴生谷[32]   马来西亚 7,820,000 2,163 3,600 C / B 62 6,800,000 巴生市
51 64 罗安达   安哥拉 7,560,000 894 7,700 C / B 51 7,450,000
52 46 香港[15]   香港 7,380,000 285 25,900 C / B 53 7,300,000 包含香港特別行政區全域
53 83 波士顿[33]   美國 7,315,000 9,189 800 N / A 50 7,550,000 普罗维登斯
54 51 巴格达   伊拉克 7,135,000 673 10,600 D / B 58 7,000,000
55 50 杭州[9]   中国大陆 7,100,000 1,269 6,000 L / B 42 8,450,000 绍兴
56 89 郑州荥阳   中国大陆 7,005,000 1,295 4,400 L / B 89 4,800,000
57 57 泉州[34]   中国大陆 6,720,000 1,645 4,300 L / B (已包含于厦门)
58 45 埃森杜塞尔多夫鲁尔区[35]   德國 6,665,000 2,655 2,500 C / B 72 5,700,000
59 52 多伦多哈密尔顿   加拿大 6,635,000 2,287 2,900 N / A 54 7,200,000 含Hamilton
60 55 达拉斯沃思堡[36]   美國 6,600,000 5,175 1,100 N / A 63 6,750,000 含Fort Worth
61 56 旧金山湾区   美國 6,540,000 2,797 2,100 N / A 48 7,700,000 Concord, Oakland, San Jose, Santa Rosa
62 59 南京[9]   中国大陆 6,525,000 1,489 4,400 L / B 57 7,050,000
63 54 马德里   西班牙 6,385,000 1,360 4,700 C / B 65 6,250,000
64 53 圣地亚哥[37]   智利 6,350,000 1,140 5,600 C / B 56 7,150,000
65 63 休斯顿[38]   美國 6,285,000 4,841 1,100 N / A 64 6,350,000
66 69 利雅得   沙烏地阿拉伯 6,220,000 1,658 3,800 C / B 60 6,900,000
67 73 苏拉特   印度 6,200,000 233 26,600 A / B 70 5,900,000
68 58 迈阿密[39]   美國 6,195,000 3,209 1,700 A / A 67 6,200,000 Fort Lauderdale, West Palm Beach
69 86 苏州[9]   中国大陆 6,175,000 1,360 4,500 C / B (已包含于上海)
70 67 普纳   印度 6,110,000 583 10,500 A / B 65 6,250,000 Pimpri-Chinchwad
71 74 万隆   印尼 5,945,000 557 10,700 C / B 68 6,050,000
72 66 新加坡[40]   新加坡 5,930,000 518 11,400 A / B 59 6,950,000 新山市(馬來西亞)
72 85 青岛即墨   中国大陆 5,930,000 1,632 3,600 L / B 71 5,850,000
74 65 西安咸阳[41]   中国大陆 5,905,000 1,088 5,400 L / B 61 6,850,000 咸阳市
75 84 内罗毕   肯尼亚 5,765,000 829 7,000 C / B 78 5,350,000
76 62 费城[11]   美國 5,575,000 5,131 1,100 A / A 52 7,350,000 Allentown, Trenton
77 77 仰光   緬甸 5,550,000 596 9,300 C / B 80 5,250,000
78 70 喀土穆   苏丹 5,490,000 971 5,700 C / B 72 5,700,000
79 245 福州   中国大陆 5,400,000 1,243 4,300 L / B 118 4,025,000
80 75 亚特兰大[42]   美國 5,325,000 7,296 600 N / A 75 5,600,000
81 68 米兰[43]   義大利 5,290,000 1,891 2,800 C / B 84 5,150,000
82 72 华盛顿哥伦比亚特区[44]   美國 5,180,000 3,424 1,300 A / A 43 8,400,000 巴尔的摩
83 71 圣彼德堡[45]   俄羅斯 5,175,000 1,347 3,800 C / B 77 5,500,000
84 79 阿比让   科特迪瓦 5,145,000 376 13,700 W / B 82 5,200,000
85 82 哈尔滨[46]   中国大陆 5,115,000 609 8,400 C / B 79 5,300,000
86 329 安曼   约旦 5,020,000 855 5,900 C / B 82 5,200,000
87 104 达累斯萨拉姆   坦桑尼亚 4,980,000 596 8,400 C / B 76 5,550,000
88 79 亚历山大港   埃及 4,960,000 293 16,900 C / B 80 5,250,000
89 96 科威特城   科威特 4,860,000 712 6,800 C / B 104 4,275,000
90 87 安卡拉   土耳其 4,850,000 660 7,300 C / B 91 4,750,000
91 78 巴塞罗纳   西班牙 4,840,000 1,075 4,500 C / B 95 4,650,000
92 81 瓜达拉哈拉   墨西哥 4,830,000 803 6,000 C / B 85 5,050,000 Zapopan
93 61 贝洛哈里桑塔   巴西 4,750,000 1,269 3,700 C / B 87 4,950,000
94 99 大连   中国大陆 4,600,000 971 4,700 C / B 96 4,600,000
95 155 贵阳   中国大陆 4,480,000 557 8,000 C / B 173 2,950,000
96 151 温州   中国大陆 4,460,000 479 9,300 C / B 69 5,950,000
97 136 卡萨布兰卡   摩洛哥 4,410,000 272 16,200 C / B 108 4,225,000
98 93 悉尼   澳大利亚 4,390,000 2,179 2,000 A / A 86 4,975,000 Central Coast
99 91 凤凰城[47]   美國 4,365,000 3,225 1,200 N / A 102 4,400,000
100 359 泗水   印尼 4,325,000 907 4,800 C / B 90 4,775,000

参考资料编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Demographia World Urban Areas, 14th Annual Edition (PDF). April 2018. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于3 May 2018). 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Brinkhoff, Thomas. Major agglomerations of the World. City Population. 1 January 2017. (原始内容存档于18 January 2018). 
  3. ^ Demographia. Demographia World Urban Areas (PDF) 9th. March 2013. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于1 May 2013). 
  4. ^ 包括神奈川千叶埼玉县的大部分,以及群马栃木茨城县的小部分。
  5. ^ Various international sources limit their population estimates to DKI Jakarta itself (the national capital district). However, the urbanization of Jakarta extends into the regencies of Tangerang, Bekasi, Bogor and Karawang and the separate cities of Bekasi, Depok and Bogor. Excludes urban areas of Karawang (650,000; 207 km2) and Serang (525,000; 65 km2).
  6. ^ Includes Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Noida, Gurgaon and Bahadurgarh. Excludes urban area of Meerut (1,489,000; 104 km2).
  7. ^ The population is higher than other agglomeration estimates (such as the United Nations), tend to be limited to Metro Manila, which is a province-level jurisdiction. The continuous urbanization of Manila extends outward into Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Rizal and Batangas provinces. The Demographia population estimate is a "build-up" of municipality population within the continuously developed area (urban area or agglomeration).
  8. ^ Includes satellite cities in Gyeonggi Province such as Suwon, Goyang, Seongnam, Yongin, Bucheon and Ansand which are treated as separate urban agglomerations by the United Nations. Excludes urban area of Cheonan (500,000; 57 km2) in Chungcheongnam-do.
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Suzhou, Wuxi, Ningbo, Changzhou, Shaoxing, and urban area of Zhangjiaggang-Jiangyin within the prefecture-level cities of Suzhou and Wuxi are treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Yangtze River Delta economic zone. Huai'an (1,856,000; 148 km2), Xuzhou (1,246,000; 233 km2), Nantong (1,036,000; 233 km2), Lianyungang (985,000; 155 km2), Zhenjiang (983,000; 168 km2), Yancheng (797,000; 207 km2), Huzhou (690,000; 111 km2), Taizhou (in Jiangsu Province; 300,000; 117 km2) and Suqian (220,000; 36 km2), as well as urban areas of Yangzhou (1,593,000; 233 km2) and Gaoyou (180,000; 39 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Yangzhou, urban areas of Kunshan (1,596,000; 492 km2), Changshu (1,139,000; 285 km2) and Taicang (523,000; 117 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Suzhou, urban areas of Cixi (1,200,000; 298 km2) and Yuyao (650,000; 122 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Ningbo, urban areas of Jiaxing (1,044,000; 259 km2) and Tongxiang (510,000; 52 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jiaxing, urban areas of Wenling (510,000; 52 km2), Jiaojiang (375,000; 41 km2) and Huangyan (200,000; 34 km2) within the prefectrure-level city of Taizhou (in Zhejiang Province), urban areas of Zhuji (500,000; 117 km2) and Shangyu (400,000; 158 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Shaoxing, urban areas of Yiwu-Dongyang (925,000; 233 km2), Jinhua (520,000; 186 km2), Yongkang (500,000; 223 km2), Dongyang (260,000; 104 km2) and Lanxi (220,000; 34 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jinhua, and urban area of Fuyang (450,000; 49 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Hangzhou are also excluded.
  10. ^ Includes Kalyan, and the Panvel urban area. As of 2016, also includes the Census of India urban areas of Bhiwandi, Kalyan, VasaiVirar beginning in 2016.
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 Demographia defines urban area of New York as a combination of New York–Newark, BridgeportStamford, New Haven, Trenton, Danbury and Twin Rivers urbanized areas. New York and Philadelphia (same with Philadelphia urbanized area) are treated as separate urban areas. Urban areas of Hartford (925,000; 1,336 km2), AllentownBethlehem (665,000; 896 km2), Springfield (621,000; 904 km2), Harrisburg (446,000; 673 km2), Poughkeepsie (427,000; 847 km2), Lancaster (405,000; 642 km2), Reading (284,000; 269 km2), Atlantic City (250,000; 324 km2), York (235,000; 342 km2), NorwichNew London (209,000; 394 km2), Waterbury (195,000; 233 km2) and Pottstown (108,000; 205 km2) are also excluded.
  12. ^ Excludes urban areas of Baoding (1,283,000; 220 km2), Zhangjiakou (1,322,000; 220 km2) and Chengde (108,000; 23 km2).
  13. ^ Includes Francisco Morato. Excludes urban area of Santos (1,716,000; 207 km2).
  14. ^ Excludes urban areas of Toluca (1,747,000; 220 km2) and Cuernavaca (675,000; 171 km2).
  15. ^ 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 由于存在海关边境,劳动力、移民不能自由流动,香港和深圳被视为分别的城区。广州-佛山、深圳、东莞和中山也视作分别的城市地区,它们共同构成了珠江三角洲地区。尽管广州和佛山因经济紧密融合而合并为一个城区,珠三角其他地区仍被分为独立的城区。Thus, urban areas of Huizhou (1,387,000; 168 km2), Zhuhai (1,274,000; 246 km2) and Zhaoqing (500,000; 65 km2) as well as urban areas of Jiangmen (920,000; 259 km2) and Taishan (204,000; 44 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jiangmen, urban area of Lishui (300,000; 44 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Foshan and urban are of Macau (560,000; 21 km2) in the Macau Special Administrative Region are excluded. Urban area of Guangzhou–Foshan includes Shunde within the prefecture-level city of Foshan, which has been excluded in the 2011 edition. Urban area of Shenzhen includes Huiyang within the prefecture-level city of Huizhou, which has been excluded in the 2010 edition. Urban area of Huizhou includes only Huicheng District. The Demographia estimate for Dongguan is lower than last year, because local estimates previously used were higher than reported in the 2010 census.
  16. ^ Includes urban area of Narayanganj which has been excluded in the 2011 edition.
  17. ^ Includes Nara and Himeji. United Nations estimates separate Osaka–Kobe and Kyoto and exclude both Nara and Himeji. Excludes urban area of Ōtsu (775,000; 303 km2) and Wakayama (430,000; 91 km2).
  18. ^ The population estimate is suspect, due to the lack of readily available data for local areas outside the city jurisdiction (Moscow Oblast). Demographia is indebted to Richard Forstall, who has provided local authority area population data for portions of Moscow Oblast within the Moscow urban areas. Other estimates (such as the United Nations estimate) include only the municipality of Moscow, which includes only part of the urban footprint. Includes ElektrostalNoginsk within Moscow Oblast, which has been excluded in the 2011 edition.
  19. ^ Combination of Los Angeles–Long BeachSanta Ana, RiversideSan Bernardino and Mission Viejo urbanized areas. Excludes urban areas of TemeculaMurrieta (472,000; 420 km2), IndioPalm Springs (370,000; 373 km2), Oxnard (369,000; 218 km2), LancasterPalmdale (358,000; 300 km2), VictorvilleHesperiaApple Valley (350,000; 433 km2), Santa Clarita (272,000; 199 km2), Thousand Oaks (216,000; 223 km2), Santa Barbara (196,000; 145 km2), Hemet (163,000; 127 km2) and Simi Valley (126,000; 80 km2).
  20. ^ Excludes urban area of La Plata (675,000; 228 km2) which has been included in the 2007 edition.
  21. ^ Includes Eslamshahr and Karaj which has been excluded in the 2012 edition.
  22. ^ Tianjin and Tangshan are treated as separate urban areas. Urban areas of Cangzhou (500,000; 130 km2) and Langfang (465,000; 130 km2) as well as urban area of Qian'an (400,000; 168 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Tangshan are also excluded. The population of the urban area of Tianjin is lower than other estimates (such as the United Nations), which include metropolitan area population not within the continuously developed urban area. The Demographia population estimate is a "build-up" of sub-municipality population within the continuously developed area (urban area or agglomeration).
  23. ^ The population is lower than other estimates (such as the United Nations), which include metropolitan area population not within the continuously developed urban area.
  24. ^ Excludes urban area of Brazzaville (1,685,000; 181 km2) in the Republic of the Congo.
  25. ^ Greater London urban area. Excludes urban areas of Reading (318,000; 84 km2), Southend-on-Sea (295,000; 72 km2), Aldershot (252,000; 79 km2), Luton (258,000; 51 km2), Medway (244,000; 52 km2), Crawley (181,000; 58 km2), Slough (164,000; 34 km2), Basildon (145,000; 37 km2), High Wycombe (133,000; 39 km2), Chelmsford (112,000; 26 km2) and Maidstone (108,000; 25 km2).
  26. ^ Includes Toyohashi.
  27. ^ Combination of Chicago, Kenosha and Round Lake BeachMcHenryGrayslake urbanized areas. Excludes urban areas of Milwaukee (1,388,000; 1,414 km2), Rockford (301,000; 396 km2), South Bend (278,000; 417 km2), Elkhart (144,000; 238 km2) and Racine (134,000; 127 km).
  28. ^ Johannesburg–East Rand and Pretoria are treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Vaal Triangle. Urban area of Vereeninging (Emfuleni) (650,000; 337 km2) is also excluded.
  29. ^ Excludes urban area of Wanzhou (Wanxian) (500,000; 41 km2) within the municipality of Chongqing. The direct-controlled municipality of Chongqing, which is sometimes translated as the direct-controlled city of Chongqing, has the largest population of any organism called a city in the stretches far beyond any reasonable definition of a metropolitan area.
  30. ^ The population is higher than other estimates (such as the United Nations), which do not include all population within the continuously developed urban area (especially in New Taipei City). Includes Taoyuan and Jhongli (Chungli) which have been excluded in the 2010 edition. Excludes urban area of Hsinchu (650,000; 117 km2).
  31. ^ Excludes urban areas of Fushun (1,412,000; 130 km2) and Tieling (325,000; 65 km2).
  32. ^ The population is higher than other agglomeration estimates (such as the United Nations), which does not include all of the continuously developed urban area in the state of Selangor. Continuous urbanization extends well beyond the municipality of Kuala Lumpur, for example to Port Klang and the area represents a single labor market (metropolitan area). The Demographia population estimate is a "build-up" of municipality population within the continuously developed area (urban area or agglomeration). Excludes urban area of Seremban (500,000; 155 km2).
  33. ^ Combination of Boston, Nashua, Providence (1,187,000; 1,412 km2), Worcester (489,000; 787 km2), Barnstable (247,000; 717 km2), Manchester (159,000; 223 km2), New Bedford (149,000; 142 km2) and LeominsterFitchburg (117,000; 168 km2).
  34. ^ Includes Shishi and Jinjiang within the prefecture-level city of Quanzhou.
  35. ^ Essen–Düsseldorf and Cologne–Bonn are treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area. Excludes urban area of AachenVaals (585,000; 401 km2) in both Germany and the Netherlands.
  36. ^ Combination of Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, DentonLewisville and McKinney urbanized areas.
  37. ^ Excludes urban area of ValparaísoViña del Mar (875,000; 161 km2).
  38. ^ Combination of Houston and Conroe urbanized areas. Excludes urban area of Texas City (106,000; 197 km2).
  39. ^ Miami urbanized area. Includes former urban areas of Fort Lauderdale and West Palm Beach, which were combined by the US Census Bureau into Miami in 2000.
  40. ^ Excludes urban area of Johor Bahru (1,640,000; 712 km2) in Malaysia and urban area of Batam (900,000; 218 km2) in Indonesia.
  41. ^ Includes Xianyang which has been excluded in the 2010 edition.
  42. ^ Atlanta urbanized area. Excludes urban areas of Gainesville (131,000; 326 km2) and Athens (129,000; 254 km2).
  43. ^ The population is higher than other agglomeration estimates (such as the United Nations), which does not include all of the continuously developed urban area, which stretches into Como, Lecco and Varese provinces. Excludes Bergamo which has been included in the 2007 edition (4,950,000; 3,043 km2 in total).
  44. ^ The US Census Bureau combines Washington and Baltimore into a single metropolitan area (consolidated area) but Demographia considers the two (same with Washington, DC and Baltimore urbanized areas) as separate urban areas. Urban areas of AberdeenHavre de Grace (214,000; 339 km2), Hagerstown (183,000; 344 km2), Frederick (142,000; 189 km2), Fredericksburg (141,000; 202 km2) and Waldorf (110,000; 176 km2) are also excluded.
  45. ^ Includes communities under the authority of the Town Council.
  46. ^ Excludes urban areas of Acheng (300,000; 39 km2) and Shangzhi (250,000; 18 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Harbin.
  47. ^ Combination of Phoenix–Mesa, Avondale and Sierra Vista urbanized area.

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