收復的領土

收復的領土波蘭語Ziemie Odzyskane)是一個地理詞彙,指二戰之後波蘭人民共和國德國獲得的領土。波蘭政府自戰後自1949年期間曾廣泛使用這一詞彙。德國則稱這一片領土為德國前東部領土[1]。戰後西德不承認放棄德國前東部領土的主權,但在1990年兩德統一,德國與波蘭簽訂德波國境條約之後,德國和波蘭的國境問題已完全解決。

Ziemie Odzyskane.png

「收復」這一詞本身帶有強烈的宣傳含義[2]。這一帶領土在中世紀時期曾有部分屬皮雅斯特王朝,波蘭人民共和國當局通過「收復」一詞宣傳自己是皮雅斯特王朝的正當繼承者[1][3][4][5][6]。而這一地區的德國文化傳統直到1989年波蘭民主化之前都被波蘭當局否定[7]。不過在1949年後,波蘭當局為了強調這一片領土並不具特殊性,不再使用「收復的領土」這一詞彙。


参考文献编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 An explanation note in "The Neighbors Respond: The Controversy Over the Jedwabne Massacre in Poland"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆), ed. by Polonsky and Michlic, p.466
  2. ^ Tomasz Kamusella and Terry Sullivan in Karl Cordell, Ethnicity and Democratisation in the New Europe, 1999, p.169: "[the term "recovered territories" was] christened so by the Polish communist-cum-nationalist propaganda", ISBN 0415173124, 9780415173124
  3. ^ Joanna B. Michlic, Poland's Threatening Other: The Image of the Jew from 1880 to the Present, 2006, pp.207-208, ISBN 0803232403, 9780803232402
  4. ^ Norman Davies, God's Playground: A History of Poland in Two Volumes, 2005, pp.381ff, ISBN 0199253404, 9780199253401
  5. ^ Geoffrey Hosking, George Schopflin, Myths and Nationhood, 1997, p.153, ISBN 0415919746, 9780415919746
  6. ^ Jan Kubik, The Power of Symbols Against the Symbols of Power: The Rise of Solidarity and the Fall of State Socialism in Poland, 1994, pp.64-65, ISBN 0271010843, 9780271010847
  7. ^ Karl Cordell, Stefan Wolff, Germany's Foreign Policy Towards Poland and the Czech Republic: Ostpolitik Revisited, 2005, ISBN 0415369746, 9780415369749, p.139页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆): "In addition [...] it has been relatively easy for Polish historians and others to attempt to debunk communist historiography and present a more balanced analysis of the past - and not only with respect to Germany. It has been controversial, and often painful, but nevertheless it has been done. For example, Poland's acquisition in 1945 of eastern German territories is increasingly presented as the price Germany paid for launching a total war, and then having lost it totally. The 'recovered territories' thesis previously applied in almost equal measures by the communists and Catholic Church has been discarded. It is freely admitted in some circles that on the whole 'the recovered territorries' in fact had a wholly German character. The extent to which this fact is transmitted to other groups than the socially and politically engaged is a matter for some debate.