湯都

(重定向自敦杜王國

湯都巴彥英语Bayan (political entity)[4][15][16](菲律賓語:Bayan ng Tondo貝貝因文字英语Baybayinᜃᜑᜍᜒᜀᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓᜊᜌᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓ邦板牙語Balen ning Tondo, Kayarian ning Tondo比科爾語:Banwáan ini Tundo、Kahadean ini Tundo;梵語तोन्दुन्),中國古代又稱東都,是菲律賓西班牙人殖民前呂宋島最主要的政體[17](p. 71)[18],位於巴石河三角洲[19][9][18],靠近馬尼拉灣。

Tundun[1]
Tondo

ᜆᜓᜇᜓ
before 900 AD[2][Notes 1]-1589[3]
湯都Flag (1450-1589)
Flag (1450-1589)
Tondo and its alliance network by 1565.
Tondo and its alliance network by 1565.
地位Independent Barangay state (15th century)[4]
首都Tondo
常用语言Old Tagalog[2]
Malay[2] (foreign trade)
宗教
政府Feudalism under "Bayan" led by a paramount leader called a Lakan, consisting of several Barangay social groups led by a Datu[4][7] and initially observed as a Monarchy by foreigners[10][11][7]
Lakan[來源請求] 
• 约 900
Unnamed Ruler represented by Jayadewa, Lord Minister of Pailah (according to LCI)
• 约 1150
Gat Timamanukum
• 约 1300
Gat Balagtas
• 1430-1450[來源請求]
Rajah Lontok
• 1450-1515[來源請求]
Dayang Kalangitan
• 1521–1571[來源請求]
Lakandula
• 1571-1575[來源請求]
Rajah Sulayman
• 1575–1589[來源請求]
Agustin de Legazpi
历史时期Antiquity[2][Notes 3] to Early modern era[4]
• First historical mention, in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription; trade relations with the Medang Kingdom implied[2]
before 900 AD[2][Notes 1]
• Various proposed dates for the founding of the neighboring Rajahnate of Maynila range as early as the 1200s (see Battle of Manila (1258) and (1365)) to the 1500s (see Battle of Manila (1500))[Notes 4]
1200s to 约1500s
• Establishment of regular trade relations with the Ming dynasty[12]
1373
• Territorial conflict with Maynila during the reign of Rajah Matanda's mother[7]
1520
• First arrival of Spanish colonizers and Battle of Manila (1570)
1570
1571
• Attack of Limahong and concurrent Tagalog revolt of 1574
1574
• Discovery of the Tondo Conspiracy, dissolution of indigenous rule, and integration into the Spanish East Indies
1589[3]
货币Piloncitos, Gold rings, and Barter[14]
前身
继承
Prehistory of the Philippines
Barangay state
Captaincy General of the Philippines
今属于Philippines

王國成立於約公元900年,由一些巴朗蓋組成,由世襲的拉肯和達圖統治。這王國位於海上絲綢之路路線最北端,依靠與中國貿易帶來財富,並把中國商品轉手整個群島的其餘地區。在與汶萊帝國蘇丹博基爾亞的聯盟期間,湯都王國進一步達到頂峰。大約在1500年左右,這個王國達到群島最北部。

自1570年開始與西班牙帝國接觸後,湯都在1571年被西班牙擊敗,被吸收為現代馬尼拉市的一個區域,結束了作為一個獨立政治實體的地位。

注释编辑

  1. ^ Earliest historical reference.
  2. ^ Practiced by some members of the "Maginoo" caste, the apex social class (Scott, 1994)
  3. ^ Earliest historical reference.
  4. ^ Participation as "Tondo" not explicitly mentioned in these oral history

參考编辑

Aganduru Moriz, Rodrigo (1882) [1623]. Historica general de las islas occidentals a la Asia adyacentes llamadas Philipinas. Coleccion de Documentos ineditos para la Historia de España. Madrid

  1. ^ Postma, Antoon (April–June 1992). "The Laguna Copper-Plate Inscription: Text and Commentary". Philippine Studies. Ateneo de Manila University. 40 (2): 182–203. JSTOR 42633308.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Postma, Antoon. The Laguna Copper-Plate Inscription: Text and Commentary. Philippine Studies (Ateneo de Manila University). June 27, 2008, 40 (2): 182–203 [2022-01-03]. (原始内容存档于2017-10-10). 
  3. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Corpuz1989的参考文献提供内容
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Pre-colonial Manila. Malacañang Presidential Museum and Library. Malacañang Presidential Museum and Library Araw ng Maynila Briefers. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. 23 June 2015 [27 April 2017]. (原始内容存档于9 March 2016). 
  5. ^ Maggay, Melba Padilla. Filipino Religious Consciousness. Quezon City: Institute for Studies in Asian Church and Culture. 1999. ISBN 971-8743-07-3. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 引用错误:没有为名为SoulBook1991的参考文献提供内容
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 引用错误:没有为名为Scott1994的参考文献提供内容
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Osborne, Milton. Southeast Asia: An Introductory History Ninth. Australia: Allen & Unwin. 2004. ISBN 1-74114-448-5. 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 9.2 Jocano, F. Landa. Filipino Prehistory: Rediscovering Precolonial Heritage. Quezon City: Punlad Research House, Inc. 2001. ISBN 971-622-006-5. 
  10. ^ Rafael, Vicente L. (2005) The Promise of the Foreign: Nationalism and the Technics of Translation in the Spanish Philippines.
  11. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Ming Annals的参考文献提供内容
  12. ^ Scott, William Henry. Societies in Prehispanic Philippines. Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. 1989. ISBN 978-9711002268. 
  13. ^ Joaquin, Nick. Manila, My Manila. Vera Reyes, Inc. 1990: 18–20. 
  14. ^ Ocampo, Ambeth R. 'Piloncitos' and the 'Philippine golden age'. opinion.inquirer.net. 30 August 2011 [2017-04-28]. (原始内容存档于2017-05-16) (英语). 
  15. ^ Junker, Laura Lee. Integrating History and Archaeology in the Study of Contact Period Philippine Chiefdoms. International Journal of Historical Archaeology. 1998, 2 (4). 
  16. ^ Renfrew, Colin, and Shennan, S. (eds.). Ranking, Resource, and Exchange. Cambridge.: Cambridge University Press. 1982. 
  17. ^ Schliesinger, Joachim. Origin of Man in Southeast Asia 4: Early Dominant Peoples of the Maritime Region. Volume 4 dari Origin of Man in Southeast Asia. Booksmango. 2016 [2017-08-19]. ISBN 9781633237285. (原始内容存档于2017-08-16). 
  18. ^ 18.0 18.1 Abinales, Patricio N. and Donna J. Amoroso, State and Society in the Philippines. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005. as referred to in http://malacanang.gov.ph/75832-pre-colonial-manila/#_ftn1页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  19. ^ Scott, William Henry. Looking for the Prehispanic Filipino and Other Essays in the Philippine History. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. 1992. ISBN 971-10-0524-7.