新翅下纲

新翅下纲(学名:Neoptera),包含昆蟲綱有翅亞綱下,除古翅下纲 (Palaeoptera)之外的所有物种,此類的昆蟲擁有翅膀,也包含在演化过程中失去了翅膀,没有飞行能力的物種[2]。新翅下纲包括昆虫中的大多数物种

新翅下纲
Bee wings in detail.jpg
蜜蜂
科学分类 e
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 节肢动物门 Arthropoda
纲: 昆虫纲 Insecta
–未分级– 双髁类 Dicondylia
亚纲: 有翅亞綱 Pterygota
演化支 伴翅类 Metapterygota
下纲: 新翅下纲 Neoptera
Lang, 1888
演化支 (Wipfler 2019年)[1]

系统分类学编辑

複新翅類 Polyneoptera编辑

無尾角類 Acercaria编辑

完全變態類 Holometabola编辑

演化支树状图编辑

新翅目的系统分类问题尚未完全解决[3][4],此演化支树状图根据Wipfler2019年的论文[1]绘制:

Phylogeny编辑

下圖為新翅下綱的親緣關係圖,新翅下綱親緣關係尚未完全釐清,下圖乃是根據 Kluge 於2004年、2010年、2012年、2013年、2019年,和2020年的論文中,以形態特徵製作的親緣關係圖[5][6][7]。下綱

The phylogeny of Neoptera is shown in the cladogram, not fully resolved, according to Kluge 2004, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2019, 2020 using morphological characteristics according to the principles of cladoendesis:

Neoptera
Idioprothoraca

Embioptera (webspinners)  

Notoptera (ice crawlers)  

Rhipineoptera

Plecoptera (stoneflies)  

Tegminoptera
Pandictyoptera

Blattodea (cockroaches, termites)  

Mantodea (mantises)  

Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets)  

Phasmatodea (stick insects, including Mantophasmatidae)  

Dermaptera (earwigs)  

Eumetabola
Parametabola

Zoraptera (angel insects)  

Acercaria
Condylognatha

Thysanoptera (thrips)  

Arthroidignatha (= "Hemiptera" auct.) (bugs)  

Panpsocoptera

Psocoptera (bark lice)  

Phthiraptera (lice)  

Endopterygota
Elytrophora

Coleoptera (beetles)  

Strepsiptera (twisted-wing parasites)  

Coleopteroidea
Neuropteroidea

Neuroptera (net-winged insects)  

Raphidioptera (snakeflies)  

Megaloptera (alderflies, dobsonflies, fishflies)  

Mecopteriformia

Diptera (true flies)  

Enteracantha

Mecoptera except Boreidae (scorpionflies)  

Calyptroptera

Boreidae (snow scorpionflies)  

Siphonaptera (fleas)  

Amphiesmenoptera

Trichoptera (caddisflies)  

Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)  

Hymenoptera (sawflies, wasps, ants, bees)  

参考资料编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Wipfler, Benjamin; Letsch, Harald; Frandsen, Paul B.; Kapli, Paschalia; Mayer, Christoph; Bartel, Daniela; Buckley, Thomas R.; Donath, Alexander; Edgerly-Rooks, Janice S. Evolutionary history of Polyneoptera and its implications for our understanding of early winged insects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2019-01-14, 116 (8): 201817794 (英语). 
  2. ^ Resh, Vincent H.; Cardé, Ring T. Encyclopedia of Insects. Academic Press. 2003-04-04: 64. ISBN 978-0-08-054605-6 (英语). 
  3. ^ Kluge 2005, Kluge 2010, Kluge 2012
  4. ^ 蔡晨阳:无尾角类 Acercaria(真臭虫,蓟马,树皮虱和真虱等)的单一起源被强烈支持 the monophyly of Acercaria (true bugs, thrips, bark lice and true lice) is strongly supported - 中国科学院南京地质古生物研究所 布里斯托大学 - 第四届“中国生物系统学学术论坛” 会议报告摘要集 - 2019-12-6 11:28 http://wap.sciencenet.cn/blog-536560-1209002.html
  5. ^ Kluge, Nikita J. Larval/pupal leg transformation and a new diagnosis for the taxon Metabola Burmeister, 1832 = Oligoneoptera Martynov, 1923 (PDF). Russian Entomological Journal. 2004, 13 (4): 189–229. 
  6. ^ Kluge, Nikita J. Circumscriptional names of higher taxa in Hexapoda (PDF). Bionomina. 2010, 1: 15–55. 
  7. ^ Kluge, Nikita J. General System of Neoptera with Description of a New Species of Embioptera (PDF). Russian Entomological Journal. 2012, 21 (4): 371–384.  Further material from Kluge is available at Tegminoptera & Calyptroptera 2013 Tetrastigmoptera 2019 Insect systematics and principles of cladoendesis.