日本-琉球语系

东亚的一个语系
(重定向自日本-琉球语族

日本語系(英語:Japonic languages),或稱日本-琉球语系(英語:Japanese-Ryukyuan languages),是世界主要語系之一,包含日語琉球語两大分支,使用人口約1.25億。

日本语系
Japonic
使用族群大和族琉球族
地理分佈日本琉球帕劳
谱系学分类世界主要語系之一
分支
ISO 639-5jpx
Glottologjapo1237[1]
Japanese dialects-ja.png

介紹编辑

关于日本語系与其它语言语系的关系到目前为止由学者们提出过许多理论:

分类编辑

日語编辑

  • 日語jpn
    • 八丈方言
    • 東日本方言
      • 北海道方言
      • 東北方言
        • 北奥羽方言
        • 南奥羽方言
      • 關東方言
        • 東關東方言
        • 西關東方言
        • 東京方言
      • 東海東山方言
        • 長野、山梨、靜岡方言
        • 越後方言
        • 岐阜、愛知方言
    • 西日本方言
      • 北陸方言
      • 近畿方言
      • 四國方言
      • 中國方言
        • 東山陽方言
        • 西中國方言
        • 東山陰方言
      • 雲伯方言
    • 九州方言
      • 豐日方言
      • 肥筑方言
      • 薩隅方言
    • 琉球日語

琉球語编辑

人造語言编辑

星界的纹章》中所用的人工语言亞維語亦被其作者歸入本語系內。

參見编辑

參考文獻编辑

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian (编). 日本语系. Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 2016. 
  2. ^ Shimabukuro, Moriyo. (2007). The Accentual History of the Japanese and Ryukyuan Languages: a Reconstruction, p. 1.
  3. ^ Miyake, Marc Hideo. (2008). Old Japanese: a Phonetic Reconstruction. p.的 66.,第66頁,於Google圖書
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Hammer, Michael F. Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes (PDF). The Japan Society of Human Genetics and Springer-Verlag (Springer Science+Business Media via Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology). 2005, 51 (1): 47–58 [2007-01-19]. PMID 16328082. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0. 
  5. ^ Heinrich, Patrick. "What leaves a mark should no longer stain: Progressive erasure and reversing language shift activities in the Ryukyu Islands," First International Small Island Cultures Conference at Kagoshima University, Centre for the Pacific Islands, February 7–10, 2005; citing Shiro Hattori. (1954) Gengo nendaigaku sunawachi goi tokeigaku no hoho ni tsuite ("Concerning the Method of Glottochronology and Lexicostatistics"), Gengo kenkyu (Journal of the Linguistic Society of Japan), Vols. 26/27.
  6. ^ "While 'Altaic' is repeated in encyclopedias and handbooks most specialists in these languages no longer believe that the three traditional supposed Altaic groups, Turkic, Mongolian and Tungusic, are related." Lyle Campbell & Mauricio J. Mixco, A Glossary of Historical Linguistics (2007, University of Utah Press), pg. 7.
  7. ^ "When cognates proved not to be valid, Altaic was abandoned, and the received view now is that Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic are unrelated." Johanna Nichols, Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time (1992, Chicago), pg. 4.
  8. ^ "Careful examination indicates that the established families, Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic, form a linguistic area (called Altaic)...Sufficient criteria have not been given that would justify talking of a genetic relationship here." R.M.W. Dixon, The Rise and Fall of Languages (1997, Cambridge), pg. 32.
  9. ^ "...[T]his selection of features does not provide good evidence for common descent" and "we can observe convergence rather than divergence between Turkic and Mongolic languages--a pattern than is easily explainable by borrowing and diffusion rather than common descent", Asya Pereltsvaig, Languages of the World, An Introduction (2012, Cambridge) has a good discussion of the Altaic hypothesis (pp. 211-216).
  10. ^ Georg et al. 1999: 73–74
  11. ^ Stefan Georg, Peter A. Michalove, Alexis Manaster Ramer, and Paul J. Sidwell (1999): "Telling general linguists about Altaic". Journal of Linguistics, volume 35, issue 1, pages 65–98.

外部链接编辑