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星際分子列表

已在星際物質和星周包層中被檢測出的分子列表

發現编辑

本列表中的所有分子都是透過分光學檢測出來的。這些分子的光譜特徵是由不同能級之間組成電子的躍遷,或是通過旋轉、振動光譜產生的,多數會在光譜的無線電波微波紅外線部分被偵測出來[1]

星際分子是由非常稀疏的星際或星周雲內的塵埃和氣體經化學反應而形成的,大部分時候於分子與宇宙射線相互作用、被電離時發生。射線中帶正電的質點會以靜電力吸引鄰近的中性粒子。反應也可以在中性的原子和分子之間發生,但進行的比較緩慢[2]。塵埃在使分子免受恆星發出的紫外線輻射的電離效應上具有關鍵作用[3]

歷史编辑

生命的化學反應可能開始於距今約138億年前大霹靂不久之後、宇宙進入一段適居時期時,當時宇宙的年齡約只有1億至1.7億年[4][5]

星際物質ISM)中檢測到的第一個含分子是甲炔(CH),於1937年首次被檢測出來[6]。之後的20世紀70年代早期的一些證據顯示,宇宙塵埃是由數量眾多的複雜有機分子(COMs,可能是聚合物)所組成的[7]。天體物理學家錢德拉·維克拉瑪辛赫英语Chandra Wickramasinghe甲醛分子為基礎提出聚合化合物存在於星際空間中的可能[8];維克拉瑪辛赫並與弗雷德·霍伊爾據2175 Å的紫外線消光吸收分析鑑定出了雙環芳香族化合物的存在,從而證明了星際空間中存在著多環芳香烴PAH/PAHs)分子[9]

2004年,科學家在自紅矩形星雲發射的紫外線中檢測出了光譜特徵英语Spectral signature,此等複雜的分子之前從未在外太空中被發現[10]。學界多認為此一發現證實了當與紅矩形星雲相同類型的星雲接近生命盡頭時,星雲核心中的碳和氫將因對流作用被束縛在恆星風中並向外輻射的假設[11]:當冷卻時,原子會彼此結合,最終形成含有百萬顆以上原子的大型分子。科學家們並推斷,既然多環芳香烴是在星雲中被發現的,那其必然也是產生於星雲之中[10][11]

2010年,富勒烯(又稱「巴克球」)在星雲中被檢測出來[12]。富勒烯與生命起源有著一定的關係;天文學家萊蒂西亞·絲糖蓋利尼(Letizia Stanghellini)說:「來自外太空的巴克球有可能為地球上的生命發展提供了種子。」[13]2019年4月,科學家透過哈伯太空望遠鏡觀測星際物質時,在恆星間偵測到了大型、複雜的離子化巴克明斯特富勒烯(C60)分子[14][15]

2011年,科學家們利用光譜學發現,含有複雜有機化合物(「具有芳香族脂肪族混合結構的無定形有機固體」)的宇宙塵埃可自然、快速地由恆星產生[16][17][18]。這些分子的化學結構非常複雜,其複雜程度已可與石油的化學成分相比;之前學界普遍認為具有這種複雜程度的化學物質僅能由生物體產生[16]。觀察結果表明,由星際塵埃粒子引入地球的有機化合物基於其表面催化活性可以作為生命的基本要素[19][20]。其中一位科學家並認為這些化合物可能與地球上的生命發展相關,並表示:「如果這一假設為真,則地球上的生命可能會比我們想像的更容易萌芽,因為這些有機物可以作為生命的組成基礎。」[16]

2012年8月,哥本哈根大學的天文學家在一個遙遠星系中的原恆星周圍發現了乙醇醛(一種有機化合物);此恆星的編號為IRAS 16293-2422,距離地球約400光年[21][22]。乙醇醛是組成核糖核酸RNA)的必要物質之一,而RNA可在遺傳編碼轉譯、調控及基因表現等過程中發揮作用。這一發現表明複雜的有機分子可能在行星形成之前即在恆星系統中產生,並最終到達正在發展的早期行星上[23]

 
紫外線環境下顯示出弓形震波獅子座CW

2012年9月,美國國家航空暨太空總署NASA)的科學家提出報告,認為多環芳香烴在星際物質環境中會經氫化氧化羥基化等作用形成更複雜的有機化合物,「逐步向形成核苷酸胺基酸(分別為蛋白質去氧核醣核酸/DNA)的道路前進」[24][25]。此外,在轉變的過程中,多環芳香烴物質將喪失其光譜特徵,「或許就是為什麼在星際冰英语Interstellar ice(尤其是寒冷、濃密的星雲)及原行星盤的上部分子層中很少偵測到多環芳香烴存在的原因之一」[24][25]

多環芳香烴在宇宙中隨處可見[26]。2013年6月,多環芳香烴在土星最大的衛星土衛六(俗稱「泰坦」)上被偵測出來[27]

2013年8月,里兹大學的德威恩·赫德(Dwayne Heard)認為量子力學中的量子穿隧效應可以解釋他的實驗小組觀察到的現象:冷羥基(溫度約63克耳文)和甲醇分子之間突破了分子內的能壘,導致兩種物質之間的反應發生率明顯高於預期。在不考慮量子效應時,此分子能壘一般需在較高溫度的環境中透過熱能或電離作用克服。量子穿隧效應有助於解釋複雜分子(由數十個以上的原子所組成)於星際空間中的存在[28]

2015年3月,NASA的科學家報告其實驗室已成功利用嘧啶(常見於隕石中)等基本化學物質,在外太空模擬環境下生成包括尿嘧啶胞嘧啶胸腺嘧啶在內的DNA和RNA等複雜有機化合物。據科學家的說法,嘧啶的形成過程與多環芳香烴相似,可能是在紅巨星、星際塵埃或氣體雲中生成的[29]

2016年10月,天文學家稱甲炔、碳氫正離子(CH+)和碳離子(C+)等生命形成所需的基本要素大部分是自恆星發出的紫外線中產生的,而非像之前料想的與超新星和年輕恆星擾動相關的事件等其他生成途徑[30][31]

人馬座B2是宇宙中星際分子含量最豐富的區域之一。人馬座B2是一個由氣體和塵埃組成的分子雲,橫躺在銀河系的中心附近,常成為天文學的研究標的。本列表中大約有一半的分子最初都是在人馬座B2內被發現的,而幾乎所有已知的星際分子目前也都能在此處檢測出來[32]。另一個常作為星際分子調查來源的地點是獅子座CW(即IRC +10216星),有多達50種分子在那裡被檢測出來[33]

理論模型编辑

要解釋觀察到的異構物的比例,就必須運用最小能量原理。在大多數情況中,最小能量原理能夠解釋為何某些分子因為總能量較低的緣故在星際空間的含量較其異構物豐富,不過也有一些例外存在[34]。這些例外有些可以利用其他分子參數解決,例如偶極極化率(dipole polarizabilty)也會影響異構物的豐度:極化率較低的分子在星際空間的含量會比平均極化率較高的分子更豐富[35]。此現象的成因來自於與宇宙中各種輻射原理相似之極化率與外部電場下分子行為的相關性。

另一種解釋則完全忽略能量問題,只處理透過資訊熵指數(information entropy index)計算的分子複雜性。此解釋推測一些分子的組成物質參數值(如尿素嘧啶二羥基丙酮尿嘧啶胞嘧啶甘氨酸丙氨酸等)因落入已知星際分子典型值的範圍內,使這些分子在星際環境中被發現的可能性較其他分子要高。此外,資訊熵大的分子,即那些結構最複雜的分子,占有星際集合的一半之多,其百分比隨著分子大小而遞減。此一趨勢也有可能與分子化學結構之均勻度和穩定性的不同有關,因為大尺寸的可檢測分子更可能擁有對稱而非不對稱的分子結構。實際觀察中檢測到的大量低熵、結構高度對稱的富勒烯分子為這一假設提供了支持理據。另外,資訊熵也反映了物質的氫化深度:資訊熵大的分子缺少氫氣組成,而其他多數分子皆含有大量的氫[36]

分子列表编辑

下列出已在星際物質星周包層中被檢測出的分子,並依照組成原子的數目分組。每一種分子均附其化學式,若有離子型式也會一併列出。若該分子只有離子的形式被檢測出來,則分子一欄留空;若未在科學文獻中定名者,分子一欄亦會留空。下列表格中質量一格數據採用之計量單位原子質量單位。每小節標題會列出該小節所含之分子總數。

目前大部分被偵測出的星際分子都是有機化合物。在所有組成原子數目達五個以上的分子中,只有甲矽烷(SiH4)是無機化合物,其他分子都具有至少一個碳原子,而沒有N-N或O-O鍵[37]

雙原子(44)编辑

 
一氧化碳(CO)經常被用來追蹤分子雲的質量分布[38]
分子 英文名稱 中文名稱 質量 離子
AlCl Aluminium monochloride[39][40] 一氯化鋁 62.5
AlF Aluminium monofluoride[39][41] 一氟化鋁 46
AlO Aluminium monoxide[42] 一氧化鋁 43
Argonium[43][44] 氬氫離子英语Argonium 41 ArH+
C2 Diatomic carbon[45][46] 雙原子碳 24
Fluoromethylidynium 氟化次甲基正離子 31 CF+[47]
CH Methylidyne radical[30][48] 次甲基自由基 13 CH+[49]
CN Cyanogen radical[39][48][50][51] 氰基自由基 26 CN+[52]
CN[53]
CO Carbon monoxide[39][54][55] 一氧化碳 28 CO+[56]
CP Carbon monophosphide[51] 一磷化碳英语Carbon monophosphide 43
CS Carbon monosulfide[39] 一硫化碳 44
FeO Iron(II) oxide[57] 氧化亞鐵 82
Helium hydride ion[58][59] 氦合氫離子 5 HeH+
H2 Molecular hydrogen[60] 分子 2
HCl Hydrogen chloride[61] 氯化氫 36.5 HCl+[62]
HF Hydrogen fluoride[63] 氟化氫 20
HO Hydroxyl radical[39] 羥基自由基 17 OH+[64]
KCl Potassium chloride[39][40] 氯化鉀 75.5
NH Imidogen[65][66] 一氫化氮英语Imidogen 15
N2 Molecular nitrogen[67][68] 分子 28
NO Nitric oxide[69] 一氧化氮 30 NO+[52]
NS Sulfur mononitride[39] 一氮化硫英语Sulfur mononitride 46
NaCl Sodium chloride[39][40] 氯化鈉 58.5
Magnesium monohydride cation 一氫化鎂英语Magnesium monohydride正離子 25.3 MgH+[52]
NaI Sodium iodide[70] 碘化鈉 150
O2 Molecular oxygen[71] 分子 32
PN Phosphorus mononitride[72] 一氮化磷英语Phosphorus mononitride 45
PO Phosphorus monoxide[73] 一氧化磷 47
SH Sulfur monohydride[74] 一氢化硫 33 SH+[75]
SO Sulfur monoxide[39] 一氧化硫 48 SO+[49]
SiC Carborundum[39][76] 碳化矽 40
SiN Silicon mononitride[39] 一氮化矽英语Silicon nitride 42
SiO Silicon monoxide[39] 一氧化矽 44
SiS Silicon monosulfide[39] 一硫化矽英语Silicon monosulfide 60
TiO Titanium(II) oxide[77] 一氧化鈦英语Titanium(II) oxide 63.9

三原子(41)编辑

 
三氫正離子H+
3
)是宇宙中含量最豐富的離子之一,於1993年首次被偵測[78][79]
分子 英文名稱 中文名稱 質量 離子
AlNC Aluminium isocyanide[39] 異氰化鋁(I) 53
AlOH Aluminium hydroxide[80] 氫氧化鋁(I) 44
C3 Tricarbon[81][82] 三碳英语Tricarbon 36
C2H Ethynyl radical[39][50] 乙炔基英语Ethynyl radical 25
CCN Cyanomethylidyne[83] 38
C2O Dicarbon monoxide[84] 一氧化二碳 40
C2S Thioxoethenylidene[85] 一氧化二硫英语Thioxoethenylidene 56
C2P [86] 55
CO2 Carbon dioxide[87] 二氧化碳 44
FeCN Iron cyanide[88] 氰化鐵 82
Protonated molecular hydrogen 三氫正離子 3 H+
3
[78][79]
H2C Methylene radical[89] 甲烯 14
Chloronium 氫鎓離子英语Chloronium 37.5 H2Cl+[90]
H2O Water[91] 18 H2O+[92]
HO2 Hydroperoxyl[93] 超氧化氫 33
H2S Hydrogen sulfide[39] 硫化氫 34
HCN Hydrogen cyanide[39][50][94] 氰化氫 27
HNC Hydrogen isocyanide[95][96] 異氫氰酸 27
HCO Formyl radical[97] 甲酰基 29 HCO+[49][97][98]
HCP Phosphaethyne[99] 磷雜乙炔 44
HCS Thioformyl[100] 硫甲醯基 45 HCS+[49][98]
Diazenylium[98][49][101] 二亞胺氮鎓離子 29 HN+
2
HNO Nitroxyl[102] 次硝酸 31
Isoformyl 29 HOC+[50]
HSC Isothioformyl[100] 45
KCN Potassium cyanide[39] 氰化鉀 65
MgCN Magnesium cyanide[39] 氰化鎂(I) 50
MgNC Magnesium isocyanide[39] 異氰化鎂(I) 50
NH2 Amino radical[103] 氨基自由基 16
N2O Nitrous oxide[104] 一氧化二氮 44
NaCN Sodium cyanide[39] 氰化鈉 49
NaOH Sodium hydroxide[105] 氫氧化鈉 40
OCS Carbonyl sulfide[106] 羰基硫 60
O3 Ozone[107] 臭氧 48
SO2 Sulfur dioxide[39][108] 二氧化硫 64
c-SiC2 c-Silicon dicarbide[39][76] c-二碳化矽英语Silicon carbide 52
SiCSi Disilicon carbide[109] 68
SiCN Silicon carbonitride[110] 碳氮化矽 54
SiNC [111] 54
TiO2 Titanium dioxide[77] 二氧化鈦 79.9

四原子(28)编辑

 
甲醛(H2CO)是一種廣泛分佈於星際介質中的有機分子[112]
分子 英文名稱 中文名稱 質量 離子
CH3 Methyl radical[113] 甲基 15
l-C3H Propynylidyne[39][114] 37 l-C3H+[115]
c-C3H Cyclopropynylidyne[116] 環丙炔基 37
C3N Cyanoethynyl[117] 氰乙基英语Polyyne 50 C3N[118]
C3O Tricarbon monoxide[114] 一氧化三碳 52
C3S Tricarbon sulfide[39][85] 一硫化三碳 68
Hydronium 水合氫離子 19 H3O+[119]
C2H2 Acetylene[120] 乙炔 26
H2CN Methylene amidogen[121] 28 H2CN+[49]
H2CO Formaldehyde[112] 甲醛 30
H2CS Thioformaldehyde[122] 硫代甲醛英语Thioformaldehyde 46
HCCN [123] 39
HCCO Ketenyl[124] 乙烯酮 41
Protonated hydrogen cyanide 質子化的氰化氫 28 HCNH+英语HCNH+[98]
Protonated carbon dioxide 質子化的二氧化碳 45 HOCO+[125]
HCNO Fulminic acid[126] 雷酸 43
HOCN Cyanic acid[127] 氰酸 43
CNCN Isocyanogen[128] 异氰 52
HOOH Hydrogen peroxide[129] 過氧化氫 34
HNCO Isocyanic acid[108] 異氰酸 43
HNCS Isothiocyanic acid[130] 異硫氰酸 59
NH3 Ammonia[39][131] 17
HSCN Thiocyanic acid[132] 硫氰酸 59
SiC3 Silicon tricarbide[39]  三碳化矽 64
HMgNC Hydromagnesium isocyanide[133]  異氰化氫鎂 51.3
HNO2 Nitrous acid[134] 亞硝酸 47

五原子(20)编辑

 
甲烷(CH4)是天然氣的主要組成成分,曾於彗星及數個太陽系行星的大氣層中被檢測到[135]
分子 英文名稱 中文名稱 質量 離子
Ammonium ion[136][137] 離子 18 NH+
4
CH4 Methane[138] 甲烷 16
CH3O Methoxy radical[139] 甲氧基 31
c-C3H2 Cyclopropenylidene[50][140][141] 環丙烯基自由基 38
l-H2C3 Propadienylidene[141] 丙二烯 38
H2CCN Cyanomethyl[142] 氰甲基英语Cyanomethyl自由基 40
H2C2O Ketene[108] 乙烯酮 42
H2CNH Methylenimine[143] 甲亞胺 29
HNCNH Carbodiimide[144] 碳二亞胺 42
Protonated formaldehyde 質子化的甲醛 31 H2COH+[145]
C4H Butadiynyl[39] 丁二炔 49 C4H[146]
HC3N Cyanoacetylene[39][50][98][147][148] 氰基乙炔 51
HCC-NC Isocyanoacetylene[149] 異氰基乙炔 51
HCOOH Formic acid[150][147] 甲酸 46
NH2CN Cyanamide[151] 氨基氰 42
Protonated cyanogen 質子化的氰 53 NCCNH+[152]
HC(O)CN Cyanoformaldehyde[153] 甲醯腈 55
C5 Linear C5[154] 五碳 60
SiC4 Silicon-carbide cluster[76] 碳化矽簇合物 92
SiH4 Silane[155] 矽烷 32

六原子(16)编辑

 
在星際物質中,甲醯胺(HCONH2,上圖)可與亞甲基結合形成乙醯胺[156]
分子 英文名稱 中文名稱 質量 離子
c-H2C3O Cyclopropenone[157] 環丙烯酮英语Cyclopropenone 54
E-HNCHCN E-Cyanomethanimine[158] 54
C2H4 Ethylene[159] 乙烯 28
CH3CN Acetonitrile[108][160][161] 乙腈 40
CH3NC Methyl isocyanide[160] 甲基異腈英语Methyl isocyanide 40
CH3OH Methanol[108][162] 甲醇 32
CH3SH Methanethiol[163] 甲基硫醇 48
l-H2C4 Diacetylene[39][164] 丁二炔 50
Protonated cyanoacetylene 質子化的氰基乙炔 52 HC3NH+[98]
HCONH2 Formamide[156] 甲醯胺 44
C5H Pentynylidyne[39][85] 亞戊基 61
C5N Cyanobutadiynyl radical[165] 氰基丁二烯基 74
HC2CHO Propynal[166] 丙炔醛英语Propynal 54
HC4N [39]  63
CH2CNH Ketenimine[140] 氮丙環 40
C5S [167] 92

七原子(11)编辑

 
乙醛(CH3CHO,上圖)及其異構體乙烯醇環氧乙烷等分子皆曾在星際空間中被偵測到[168]
分子 英文名稱 中文名稱 質量 離子
c-C2H4O Ethylene oxide[169] 環氧乙烷 44
CH3C2H Methylacetylene[50] 丙炔 40
H3CNH2 Methylamine[170] 甲胺 31
CH2CHCN Acrylonitrile[108][160] 丙烯腈 53
H2CHCOH Vinyl alcohol[168] 乙烯醇 44
C6H Hexatriynyl radical[39][85] 己三炔英语3-Hexyne 73 C6H[141][171]
HC4CN Cyanodiacetylene[108][148][160] 氰基丁二炔英语Cyanopolyyne 75
HC5O [172] 77
CH3CHO Acetaldehyde[39][169] 乙醛 44
CH3NCO Methyl isocyanate[173] 異氰酸甲酯 57
HOCH2CN Glycolonitrile[174] 羥基乙腈 57

八原子(11)编辑

 
乙酸(CH3COOH,中常見的化合物)之電波訊號已於1997年被證實為真[175]
分子 英文名稱 中文名稱 質量 離子
H3CC2CN Methylcyanoacetylene[176] 甲基氰基乙炔 65
H2COHCHO Glycolaldehyde[177] 乙醇醛 60
HCOOCH3 Methyl formate[108][147][177] 甲酸甲酯 60
CH3COOH Acetic acid[175] 乙酸 60
H2C6 Hexapentaenylidene[39][164] 己五烯 74
CH2CHCHO Propenal[140] 丙烯醛 56
CH2CCHCN Cyanoallene[140][176] 氰基丙二烯 65
CH3CHNH Ethanimine[178] 亞氨基乙烷 43
C7H Heptatrienyl radical[179] 庚三烯基自由基 85
NH2CH2CN Aminoacetonitrile[180] 氨基乙腈英语Aminoacetonitrile 56
(NH2)2CO Urea[181] 尿素 60

九原子(10)编辑

 
乙醇(CH3CH2OH)是常見的燃料、溶劑和消毒劑,也常用於有機合成
分子 英文名稱 中文名稱 質量 離子
CH3C4H Methyldiacetylene[182] 甲基丁二炔 64
CH3OCH3 Dimethyl Ether[183] 二甲醚 46
CH3CH2CN Propionitrile[39][108][160] 丙腈 55
CH3CONH2 Acetamide[140][156] 乙醯胺 59
CH3CH2OH Ethanol[184] 乙醇 46
C8H Octatetraynyl radical[185] 辛四炔英语4-Octyne自由基 97 C8H[186][187]
HC7N Cyanohexatriyne
Cyanotriacetylene[39][131][188][189]
氰基己三炔 99
CH3CHCH2 Propylene
Propene[190]
丙烯 42
CH3CH2SH Ethyl mercaptan[191] 乙硫醇 62

超過九個原子(17)编辑

一些聚炔烴英语polyyne衍生化學物質名列星際介質中發現的最重的分子之一
原子數量 分子 英文名稱 中文名稱 質量 離子
10 (CH3)2CO Acetone[108][192] 丙酮 58
10 (CH2OH)2 Ethylene glycol[193][194] 乙二醇 62
10 CH3CH2CHO Propanal[140] 丙醛 58
10 CH3OCH2OH Methoxymethanol[195] 甲氧基甲醇 62
10 CH3C5N Methylcyanodiacetylene[140] 甲基氰基丁二炔 89
10 CH3CHCH2O Propylene oxide[196] 環氧丙烷 58
11 HC8CN Cyanotetraacetylene[39][188] 氰基辛四炔 123
11 C2H5OCHO Ethyl formate[197] 甲酸乙酯 74
11 CH3COOCH3 Methyl acetate[198] 乙酸甲酯 74
11 CH3C6H Methyltriacetylene[140][182] 甲基己三炔 88
12 C6H6 Benzene[164] 78
12 C3H7CN n-Propyl cyanide[197] 丁腈 69
12 (CH3)2CHCN iso-Propyl cyanide[199][200] 異丁腈英语Isobutyronitrile 69
13 C6H5CN Benzonitrile[201] 苯甲腈 104
13 HC10CN Cyanopentaacetylene[188] 氰基癸五炔 147
60 C60 Buckminsterfullerene
C60 fullerene[202]
富勒烯 720 C+
60
[14][15][203][204]
70 C70 C70 fullerene[202] C70富勒烯英语C70 fullerene 840

含氘原子的分子(20)编辑

以下分子皆含有,氫的的一種穩定形態同位素

原子數量 分子 英文名稱 中文名稱
2 HD Hydrogen deuteride[205][206] 氘化氫英语Hydrogen deuteride
3 H2D+
HD+
2
Trihydrogen cation[205][206] 三氫正離子
3 HDO
D2O
Heavy water[207][208] 重水
3 DCN Hydrogen cyanide[209] 氰化氫
3 DCO Formyl radical[209] 甲醯基
3 DNC Hydrogen isocyanide[209] 異氫氰酸
3 N2D+ [209] 
4 NH2D
NHD2
ND3
Ammonia[206][210][211]
4 HDCO
D2CO
Formaldehyde[206][212] 甲醛
4 DNCO Isocyanic acid[213] 異氰酸
5 NH3D+ Ammonium ion[214][215] 銨離子
6 NH2CDO
NHDCHO
Formamide[213] 甲醯胺
7 CH2DCCH
CH3CCD
Methylacetylene[216][217] 丙炔

未經證實的分子(12)编辑

以下分子存在於星際空間中的證據曾在科學文獻中被提及,然而這些證據不是被文獻作者描述為「暫定性的」,就是曾被其他學者所挑戰。這些分子存在於星際空間中的證據仍待更多獨立研究證實。

原子數量 分子 英文名稱 中文名稱
2 SiH Silylidine[95]
4 PH3 Phosphine[218]
4 MgCCH Magnesium monoacetylide[167] 乙炔酸鎂
4 NCCP Cyanophosphaethyne[167] 氰基磷杂乙炔
5 H2NCO+ [219]
4 SiH3CN Silyl cyanide[167] 氰基甲基矽烷
10 H2NCH2COOH Glycine[220][221] 甘氨酸
12 CO(CH2OH)2 Dihydroxyacetone[222] 二羥基丙酮
12 C2H5OCH3 Ethyl methyl ether[223] 甲乙醚
18 C10H+
8
Naphthalene cation[224] 正离子
24 C24 Graphene[225] 石墨烯
24 C14H10 Anthracene[10][226]
26 C16H10 Pyrene[10]

參見编辑

參考資料编辑

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