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東南亞古典時期中(大約5至15世紀),著名的曼荼羅國家,從北到南分別是:蒲甘王國大城王國占婆吳哥王朝三佛齊滿者伯夷

曼荼羅體系(Mandala)是東南亞文化圈的一種政治模型。「曼荼羅」一詞在梵語中意思是「圓圈」(另有聚集、壇之意,是印度教和佛教常使用的象徵性圖形)。曼荼羅體系描述的是東南亞歷史早期分佈於吉打端英语Kedatuan的各種分散的政權形式,而土著政權比中央領導政權的權力更大。在某種意義上近似於歐洲的封建制度,以及宗主國朝貢國之間的關係。其統治範圍限於王都的周邊地區,越遠離首都則統治權力越趨減弱,這種非中央集權、國土經常伸縮變化的國家,稱為曼陀羅國家

O·W·沃尔特斯英语O. W. Wolters於1982年更加深入闡述了這個詞彙。

較知名的曼荼羅體系有蒲甘王國阿瑜陀耶王國占婆高棉帝國三佛齊滿者伯夷等。附庸國有義務向中央政權進貢金銀花

參見编辑

參考書籍编辑

  • 岩崎育夫著、廖怡靜譯,《從東南亞到東協》,台北:商周出版社,2018
  • Chandler, David. A History of Cambodia. Westview Press, 1983. ISBN 0-8133-3511-6
  • Chutintaranond, Sunait. Mandala, Segmentary State and Politics of Centralization in Medieval Ayudhya (free). Journal of the Siam Society (Siam Heritage Trust). 1990,. JSS Vol. 78.1 (digital) [March 17, 2013]. ... I am interested in the ways in which Kautilya's theory of mandala has been interpreted by historians for the purpose of studying ancient states in South and Southeast Asia. 
  • Lieberman, Victor, Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context, c. 800-1830, Volume 1: Integration on the Mainland, Cambridge University Press, 2003.
  • Stuart-Fox, Martin, The Lao Kingdom of Lan Xang: Rise and Decline, White Lotus, 1998.
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  • Thongchai Winichakul. Siam Mapped. University of Hawaii Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8248-1974-8
  • Wolters, O.W. History, Culture and Region in Southeast Asian Perspectives. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1982. ISBN 0-87727-725-7
  • Wolters, O.W. History, Culture and Region in Southeast Asian Perspectives. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Revised Edition, 1999.
  • Wyatt, David. Thailand: A Short History (2nd edition). Yale University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-300-08475-7