曼萨 (称谓)

曼萨(Mansa)是曼丁卡语词汇,意为统治者,即国王皇帝,亦可与伊斯兰教的称谓苏丹对应,是中世纪西非马里帝国的君主称谓。马里帝国在13世纪至15世纪支配西非,曼萨垄断贸易,从而极度富有。松迪亚塔·凯塔是马里帝国的第一位曼萨,他开创了马里帝国凯塔王朝的统治。历史上其他著名的曼萨还有乌利一世穆萨一世[1][2][3][4][5]

参见编辑

参考资料编辑

  1. ^ An Interview with Ibn Battuta, Kathleen Knoblock, Primary Source Fluency Activities: World Cultures (In Sub-Saharan Africa), pub. Shell Education 2007 ISBN 978-1-4258-0102-1
  2. ^ Travels in Asia and Africa, 1325-1354, by Ibn Battuta, London 2005, p. 324 ISBN 0-415-34473-5
  3. ^ Jansen, Jan. Hot Issues: The 1997 Kamabolon Ceremony in Kangaba (Mali). The International Journal of African Historical Studies. 1998, 31 (2): 253–278. JSTOR 221083.  .  On page 256, Jan Jansen writes: “Mansa is generally translated as 'king,' 'ruler' or 'ancestor.' The Griaulians, however, often translate mansa as 'God,' 'the divine principle' or 'priest king,' although they never argue the choice for this translation, which has an enormous impact on their analysis of the Kamabolon ceremony.”
  4. ^ A Grammar of the Mandingo Language: With Vocabularies, by Robert Maxwell Macbrair, London 1873, p. 5.
  5. ^ Making America – A History of the United States, 5th edition, by Carol Berkin, Christopher Miller, Robert Cherny, James Gormly & Douglas Egerton, Boston 2011, p. 13 ISBN 978-0-618-47139-3