标准电极电势表

维基媒体列表条目

标准电极电势可以用来计算化学电池原电池电化学势电极电势

标准电极电位是以标准氢原子作为参比电极,即氢的标准电极电位值定为0,与氢标准电极比较,电位较高的为正,电位较低者为负。

本表中所给出的电极电势以以下條件測得:

单击每栏上方的符号可将数据按元素符号、反應物、產物或标准电极电势值排序。

注:(s) – 固体;(l) – 液体;(g) – 气体;(aq) – 水溶液;(Hg) – 汞齊

元素 半反應 (V)[註 1] 來源
氧化劑 還原劑
& -9
Zz 9
Ba+
+ e
Ba(s) −4.38 [1][3][10]
Sr+
+ e
Sr(s) −4.10 [11][1][3][12]
Ca+
+ e
Ca(s) −3.8 [11][1][3][12]
Th4+
+ e
Th3+
-3.6 [13]
Pr3+
+ e
Pr2+
−3.1 [11]
3N
2
(g) + 2H+ + 2e
2HN
3
(aq)
−3.09 [6]
Li+
+ e
Li(s) −3.0401 [5]
N
2
(g) + 4H2O + 2e
2NH
2
OH
(aq) + 2OH
−3.04 [6]
Cs+
+ e
Cs(s) −3.026 [5]
Ca(OH)
2
(s) + 2e
Ca(s) + 2OH −3.02 [11]
Er3+
+ e
Er2+
−3.0 [11]
Ba(OH)
2
(s) + 2e
Ba(s) + 2OH −2.99 [11]
Rb+
+ e
Rb(s) −2.98 [4]
K+
+ e
K(s) −2.92 [5]
Mg+
+ e
Mg(s) −2.93 [10]
Ba2+
+ 2e
Ba(s) −2.912 [5]
La(OH)
3
(s) + 3e
La(s) + 3OH −2.90 [5]
Fr+
+ e
Fr(s) −2.9 [11]
Sr2+
+ 2e
Sr(s) −2.899 [5]
Sr(OH)
2
(s) + 2e
Sr(s) + 2OH −2.88 [11]
Ca2+
+ 2e
Ca(s) −2.868 [5]
NH+
4
+ e
NH
4
−2.85
Eu2+
+ 2e
Eu(s) −2.812 [5]
Ra2+
+ 2e
Ra(s) −2.8 [5]
Yb2+
+ 2e
Yb(s) −2.76 [11][1]
Na+
+ e
Na(s) −2.71 [5][9]
Sm2+
+ 2e
Sm(s) −2.68 [11][1]
No2+
+ 2e
No(s) −2.50 [11]
HfO(OH)
2
(s) + H2O + 4e
Hf(s) + 4OH −2.50 [11]
Th(OH)
4
(s) + 4e
Th(s) + 4OH −2.48 [11]
Md2+
+ 2e
Md(s) −2.40 [11]
La3+
+ 3e
La(s) −2.379 [5]
Y3+
+ 3e
Y(s) −2.372 [5]
Mg2+
+ 2e
Mg(s) −2.372 [5]
ZrO(OH)
2
(s) + H2O + 4e
Zr(s) + 4OH −2.36 [5]
Pr3+
+ 3e
Pr(s) −2.353 [11]
Ce3+
+ 3e
Ce(s) −2.336 [11]
Er3+
+ 3e
Er(s) −2.331 [11]
Ho3+
+ 3e
Ho(s) −2.33 [11]
Al(OH)
4
+ 3e
Al(s) + 4OH −2.33
Al(OH)
3
(s) + 3e
Al(s) + 3OH −2.31
Tb3+
+ 3e
Tb(s) −2.28
H
2
(g) + 2e
2H
−2.25
Ac3+
+ 3e
Ac(s) −2.20
Be+
+ e
Be(s) −2.12 [10]
Cf2+
+ 2e
Cf(s) −2.12 [11]
Am3+
+ 3e
Am(s) −2.048 [11]
Cf3+
+ 3e
Cf(s) −1.94 [11]
Ca2+
+ e
Ca+
−1.936 [5][11]
Am2+
+ 2e
Am(s) −1.9 [11]
Fm3+
+ 3e
Fm(s) −1.89 [11]
Be2+
+ 2e
Be(s) −1.85
Rf4+
+ 4e
Rf(s) −1.67 [14]
U3+
+ 3e
U(s) −1.66 [7]
Al3+
+ 3e
Al(s) −1.66 [9]
Ti2+
+ 2e
Ti(s) −1.63 [9]
Bk2+
+ 2e
Bk(s) −1.6 [11]
ZrO
2
(s) + 4H+ + 4e
Zr(s) + 2H2O −1.553 [5]
Hf4+
+ 4e
Hf(s) −1.55 [11]
Zr4+
+ 4e
Zr(s) −1.45 [5]
Ti3+
+ 3e
Ti(s) −1.37 [15]
TiO(s) + 2H+ + 2e Ti(s) + H2O −1.31
C4+
+ 4e
C −1.3 [16]
Ti
2
O
3
(s) + 2H+ + 2e
2TiO(s) + H2O −1.23
Zn(OH)2−
4
+ 2e
Zn(s) + 4OH −1.199 [17]
Mn2+
+ 2e
Mn(s) −1.185 [17]
Fe(CN)4−
6
+ 6H+ + 2e
Fe(s) + 4HCN(aq) −1.16 [18]
V2+
+ 2e
V(s) −1.175 [2]
Te(s) + 2e Te2− −1.143 [2]
Nb3+
+ 3e
Nb(s) −1.099
Sn(s) + 4H+ + 4e SnH
4
(g)
−1.07
In(OH)
3
(s) + 3e
In(s) + 3OH −0.99 [11]
SiO
2
(s) + 4H+ + 4e
Si(s) + 2H2O −0.91
B(OH)
3
(aq) + 3H+ + 3e
B(s) + 3H2O −0.89
Fe(OH)
2
(s) + 2e
Fe(s) + 2OH −0.89 [18]
Fe2O
3
(s) + 3H2O + 2e
2Fe(OH)
2
(s) + 2OH
−0.86 [18]
TiO2+
+ 2H+ + 4e
Ti(s) + H2O −0.86
2H2O + 2e H
2
(g) + 2OH
−0.8277 [5]
Bi(s) + 3H+ + 3e BiH
3
−0.8 [17]
Zn2+
+ 2e
Zn(Hg) −0.7628 [5]
Zn2+
+ 2e
Zn(s) −0.7618 [5]
Ta
2
O
5
(s) + 10H+ + 10e
2Ta(s) + 5H2O −0.75
Cr3+
+ 3e
Cr(s) −0.74
[Au(CN)
2
]
+ e
Au(s) + 2CN
−0.60
Ta3+
+ 3e
Ta(s) −0.6
PbO(s) + H2O + 2e Pb(s) + 2OH −0.58
2TiO
2
(s) + 2H+ + 2e
Ti
2
O
3
(s) + H2O
−0.56
Ga3+
+ 3e
Ga(s) −0.53
U4+
+ e
U3+
−0.52 [7]
H
3
PO
2
(aq) + H+ + e
P(白磷)[19] + 2H2O −0.508 [5]
H
3
PO
3
(aq) + 2H+ + 2e
H
3
PO
2
(aq) + H2O
−0.499 [5]
H
3
PO
3
(aq) + 3H+ + 3e
P(红磷)[19] + 3H2O −0.454 [5]
Fe2+
+ 2e
Fe(s) -0.44 [9]
2CO
2
(g) + 2H+ + 2e
HOOCCOOH(aq) −0.43
Cr3+
+ e
Cr2+
−0.42
Cd2+
+ 2e
Cd(s) −0.40 [9]
SeO2−
3
+ 4e + 3H2O
Se + 6OH −0.37 [20]
GeO
2
(s) + 2H+ + 2e
GeO(s) + H2O −0.37
Cu
2
O
(s) + H2O + 2e
2Cu(s) + 2OH −0.360 [5]
PbSO
4
(s) + 2e
Pb(s) + SO2−
4
−0.3588 [5]
PbSO
4
(s) + 2e
Pb(Hg) + SO2−
4
−0.3505 [5]
Eu3+
+ e
Eu2+
−0.35 [7]
In3+
+ 3e
In(s) −0.34 [2]
Tl+
+ e
Tl(s) −0.34 [2]
NAD(P)|+}} + H+ + 2e NAD(P)H −0.32 [21]
B3+
+ 3e
B(s) −0.31
Ge(s) + 4H+ + 4e GeH
4
(g)
−0.29
Co2+
+ 2e
Co(s) −0.28 [5]
H
3
PO
4
(aq) + 2H+ + 2e
H
3
PO
3
(aq) + H2O
−0.276 [5]
V3+
+ e
V2+
−0.26 [9]
Ni2+
+ 2e
Ni(s) −0.25
As(s) + 3H+ + 3e AsH
3
(g)
−0.23 [2]
AgI(s) + e Ag(s) + I
−0.15224 [17]
MoO
2
(s) + 4H+ + 4e
Mo(s) + 2H2O −0.15
Si(s) + 4H+ + 4e SiH
4
(g)
−0.14
Sn2+
+ 2e
Sn(s) −0.13
O
2
(g) + H+ + e
HO
2
•(aq)
−0.13
Pb2+
+ 2e
Pb(s) −0.13 [9]
WO
2
(s) + 4H+ + 4e
W(s) + 2H2O −0.12
P(红磷) + 3H+ + 3e PH
3
(g)
−0.111 [5]
CO
2
(g) + 2H+ + 2e
HCOOH(aq) −0.11
Se(s) + 2H+ + 2e H
2
Se
(g)
−0.11
CO
2
(g) + 2H+ + 2e
CO(g) + H2O −0.11
SnO(s) + 2H+ + 2e Sn(s) + H2O −0.10
SnO
2
(s) + 2H+ + 2e
SnO(s) + H2O −0.09
WO
3
(aq) + 6H+ + 6e
W(s) + 3H2O −0.09 [2]
P(白磷) + 3H+ + 3e PH
3
(g)
−0.063 [5]
2D+
+ 2e
D
2
(g)
−0.044
Fe3+
+ 3e
Fe(s) −0.04 [18]
HCOOH(aq) + 2H+ + 2e HCHO(aq) + H2O −0.03
2H+ + 2e H
2
(g)
−0.00 ≡0
AgBr(s) + e Ag(s) + Br +0.07133 [17]
S
4
O2−
6
+ 2e
2S
2
O2−
3
+0.08
Fe
3
O
4
(s) + 8H+ + 8e
3Fe(s) + 4H2O +0.085 [8]
N
2
(g) + 2H2O + 6H+ + 6e
2NH
4
OH
(aq)
+0.092
HgO(s) + H2O + 2e Hg(l) + 2OH +0.0977
Cu(NH
3
)2+
4
+ e
Cu(NH
3
)+
2
+ 2NH
3
+0.10 [2]
Ru(NH
3
)3+
6
+ e
3|)|6|2+}} +0.10 [7]
N
2
H
4
(aq) + 4H2O + 2e
2NH4+
+ 4OH
+0.11 [6]
H
2
MoO
4
(aq) + 6H+ + 6e
Mo(s) + 4H2O +0.11
Ge4+
+ 4e
Ge(s) +0.12
C(s) + 4H+ + 4e CH
4
(g)
+0.13 [2]
HCHO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e CH
3
OH
(aq)
+0.13
S(s) + 2H+ + 2e H2}S(g) +0.14
Sn4+
+ 2e
Sn2+
+0.15
Cu2+
+ e
Cu+
+0.159 [2]
HSO
4
+ 3H+ + 2e
SO
2
(aq) + 2H2O
+0.16
UO2+
2
+ e
UO+
2
+0.163 [7]
SO2−
4
+ 4H+ + 2e
SO
2
(aq) + 2H2O
+0.17
TiO2+
+ 2H+ + e
3+}} + H2O +0.19
Bi3+
+ 2e
Bi+}} +0.2
SbO+
+ 2H+ + 3e
Sb(s) + H2O +0.20
CO
2
(g) + 4H+ + 4e
C(s) + 2H2O +0.205
AgCl(s) + e Ag(s) + Cl
+0.22233 [17]
H
3
AsO
3
(aq) + 3H+ + 3e
As(s) + 3H2O +0.24
GeO(s) + 2H+ + 2e Ge(s) + H2O +0.26
UO+
2
+ 4H+ + e
U4+
+ 2H2O
+0.273 [7]
At
2
+ e
2At
+0.3 [11]
Re3+
+ 3e
Re(s) +0.300
Bi3+
+ 3e
Bi(s) +0.32
VO2+
+ 2H+ + e
V3+
+ H2O
+0.34
Cu2+
+ 2e
Cu(s) +0.340 [2]
鐵氰 [Fe(CN)
6
]3−
+ e
[Fe(CN)]4−
6
+0.36
Tc2+
+ 2e
Tc(s) +0.40 [11]
O
2
(g) + 2H2O + 4e
4OH(aq) +0.40 [9]
H
2
MoO
4
+ 6H+ + 3e
Mo3+
+ 2H2O
+0.43
Ru2+
+ 2e
Ru(s) +0.455 [11]
Bi+
+ e
Bi(s) +0.50
CH
3
OH
(aq) + 2H+ + 2e
CH
4
(g) + H2O
+0.50
SO
2
(aq) + 4H+ + 4e
S(s) + 2H2O +0.50
Cu+
+ e
Cu(s) +0.520 [2]
CO(g) + 2H+ + 2e C(s) + H2O +0.52
I
3
+ 2e
3I
+0.53 [9]
I
2
(s) + 2e
2I
+0.54 [9]
[AuI
4]
+ 3e
Au(s) + 4I
+0.56
H
3
AsO
4
(aq) + 2H+ + 2e
H
3
AsO
3
(aq) + H2O
+0.56
[AuI
2
]
+ e
Au(s) + 2I
+0.58
MnO
4
+ 2H2O + 3e
MnO
2
(s) + 4OH
+0.59
Rh+
+ e
Rh(s) +0.600 [11]
S
2
O2−
3
+ 6H+ + 4e
2S(s) + 3H2O +0.60
二茂鐵 Fe(C
5
H
5
)
2
+ e
Fe(C
5
H
5
)
2
(s)
+0.641 [22]
CH
3
COOAg
+ e
Ag + CH
3
COO
+0.643 [11]
H
2
MoO
4
(aq) + 2H+ + 2e
MoO
2
(s) + 2H2O
+0.65
苯醌 1,4-Benzochinon.svg + 2H+ + 2e Hydrochinon2.svg +0.6992 [17]
O
2
(g) + 2H+ + 2e
H
2
O
2
(aq)
+0.70
Tl3+
+ 3e
Tl(s) +0.72
PtCl2−
6
+ 2e
PtCl2−
4
+ 2Cl
+0.726 [7]
H
2
SeO
3
(aq) + 4H+ + 4e
Se(s) + 3H2O +0.74
Rh3+
+ 3e
Rh(s) +0.758 [11]
PtCl2−
4
+ 2e
Pt(s) + 4Cl
+0.758 [7]
Fe3+
+ e
Fe2+
+0.77
Ag+
+ e
Ag(s) +0.7996 [5]
Hg2+
2
+ 2e
2Hg(l) +0.80
NO
3
(aq) + 2H+ + e
NO
2
(g) + H2O
+0.80
FeO2−
4
+ 5H2O + 6e
Fe
2
O
3
(s) + 10OH
+0.81 [18]
[AuBr
4
]
+ 3e
Au(s) + 4Br
+0.85
Hg2+
+ 2e
Hg(l) +0.85
MnO
4
+ H+ + e
HMnO
4
+0.90
2Hg2+
+ 2e
Hg2+
2
+0.91 [2]
Pd2+
+ 2e
Pd(s) +0.915 [7]
[AuCl
4
]
+ 3e
Au(s) + 4Cl
+0.93
MnO
2
(s) + 4H+ + e
Mn3+
+ 2H2O
+0.95
[AuBr
2
]
+ e
Au(s) + 2Br
+0.96
[HXeO
6
]3−
+ 2H2O + 2e+
[HXeO
4
]
+ 4OH
+0.99 [23]
HNO
2
+ H+ + e
NO(g) + H2O +0.996
H
6
TeO
6
(aq) + 2H+ + 2e
TeO
2
(s) + 4H2O
+1.02 [24]
Br
2
(l) + 2e
2Br
+1.07
Br
2
(aq) + 2e
2Br
+1.09 [9]
NO
2
(g) + H+ + e
HNO
2
+1.093
IO
3
+ 5H+ + 4e
HIO(aq) + 2H2O +1.13
[AuCl
2]
+ e
Au(s) + 2Cl
+1.15
HSeO
4
+ 3H+ + 2e
H
2
SeO
3
(aq) + H2O
+1.15
Ir3+
+ 3e
Ir(s) +1.156 [11]
Ag
2
O
(s) + 2H+ + 2e
2Ag(s) + H2O +1.17
ClO
3
+ 2H+ + e
ClO
2
(g) + H2O
+1.18
[HXeO
6
]3−
+ 5H2O + 8e
Xe(g) + 11OH +1.18 [23]
Pt2+
+ 2e
Pt(s) +1.188 [7]
ClO
2
(g) + H+ + e
HClO
2
(aq)
+1.19
2IO
3
+ 12H+ + 10e
I
2
(s) + 6H2O
+1.20
ClO
4
+ 2H+ + 2e
ClO
3
+ H2O
+1.20
O
2
(g) + 4H+ + 4e
2H2O +1.229 [9]
MnO
2
(s) + 4H+ + 2e
Mn2+
+ 2H2O
+1.23
[HXeO
4
]
+ 3H2O + 6e
Xe(g) + 7OH +1.24 [23]
Tl3+
+ 2e
Tl+
+1.25
Cr
2
O2−
7
+ 14H+ + 6e
2Cr3+
+ 7H2O
+1.33
Cl
2
(g) + 2e
2Cl
+1.36 [9]
CoO
2
(s) + 4H+ + e
Co3+
+ 2H2O
+1.42
2NH3OH+
+ H+ + 2e
N
2
H+
5
+ 2H2O
+1.42 [6]
2HIO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e I
2
(s) + 2H2O
+1.44
Ce4+
+ e
Ce3+
+1.44
BrO
3
+ 5H+ + 4e
HBrO(aq) + 2H2O +1.45
β-PbO
2
(s) + 4H+ + 2e
Pb2+
+ 2H2O
+1.460 [2]
α-PbO
2
(s) + 4H+ + 2e
Pb2+
+ 2H2O
+1.468 [2]
2BrO
3
+ 12H+ + 10e
Br
2
(l) + 6H2O
+1.48
2ClO
3
+ 12H+ + 10e
Cl
2
(g) + 6H2O
+1.49
HO
2
+ H+ + e
H
2
O
2
+1.495 [11]
MnO
4
+ 8H+ + 5e
Mn2+
+ 4H2O
+1.51
HO
2
• + H+ + e
H
2
O
2
(aq)
+1.51
Au3+
+ 3e
Au(s) +1.52
NiO
2
(s) + 4H+ + 2e
Ni2+
+ 2OH
+1.59
HClO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e Cl
2
(g) + 2H2O
+1.63
Ag
2
O
3
(s) + 6H+ + 4e
2Ag+
+ 3H2O
+1.67
HClO
2
(aq) + 2H+ + 2e
HClO(aq) + H2O +1.67
Pb4+
+ 2e
Pb2+
+1.69 [2]
MnO
4
+ 4H+ + 3e
MnO
2
(s) + 2H2O
+1.70
AgO(s) + 2H+ + e Ag+
+ H2O
+1.77
H
2
O
2
(aq) + 2H+ + 2e
2H2O +1.776
Co3+
+ e
Co2+
+1.82
Au+
+ e
Au(s) +1.83 [2]
BrO
4
+ 2H+ + 2e
BrO
3
+ H2O
+1.85
Ag2+
+ e
Ag+
+1.98 [2]
S
2
O2−
8
+ 2e
2SO2−
4
+2.07
O
3
(g) + 2H+ + 2e
O
2
(g) + H2O
+2.075 [7]
HMnO
4
+ 3H+ + 2e
MnO
2
(s) + 2H2O
+2.09
XeO
3
(aq) + 6H+ + 6e
Xe(g) + 3H2O +2.12 [23]
F
2
O
+ 2H+ + 4e
2F
+ H2O
+2.153 [11]
H
4
XeO
6
(aq) + 8H+ + 8e
Xe(g) + 6H2O +2.18 [23]
FeO2−
4
+ 3e+ 8H+
Fe3+
+ 4H2O
+2.20 [25]
XeF
2
(aq) + 2H+ + 2e
Xe(g) + 2HF(aq) +2.32 [23]
H
4
XeO
6
(aq) + 2H+ + 2e
XeO
3
(aq) + H2O
+2.42 [23]
F
2
(g) + 2e
2F +2.87 [2][9]
F
2
(g) + 2H+ + 2e
2HF(aq) +3.05 [2]
Tb4+
+ e
Tb3+
+3.05 [11]
  1. ^ Safari的v.4.0.3或更早版本(v4.0.5可正常工作)上单击这一列可能不会工作。在这种情况下仅仅需要刷新页面恢复原始顺序。

參見编辑

参考资料编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Milazzo, G., Caroli, S., and Sharma, V. K. (1978). Tables of Standard Electrode Potentials (Wiley, Chichester).
  2. ^ 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 Bard, A. J., Parsons, R., and Jordan, J. (1985). Standard Potentials in Aqueous Solutions (Marcel Dekker, New York).
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Bratsch, S. G. (1989). Journal of Physical Chemistry Reference Data Vol. 18, pp. 1–21.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Vanýsek, Petr (2006). "Electrochemical Series," in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: 87th Edition页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) (Chemical Rubber Company).
  5. ^ 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29 5.30 5.31 Vanýsek, Petr (2007). “Electrochemical Series”, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: 88th Edition页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) (Chemical Rubber Company).
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. Chemistry of the Elements 2nd. Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. 1997. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4. 
  7. ^ 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 Bard, A.J., Faulkner, L.R.(2001). Electrochemical Methods. Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd edition (John Wiley and Sons Inc).
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Marcel Pourbaix (1966). Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions (NACE International, Houston, Texas; Cebelcor, Brussels).
  9. ^ 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 Peter Atkins (1997). Physical Chemistry, 6th edition (W.H. Freeman and Company, New York).
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 Ca Sr Ba一價[11]與兩價間的標準電極電勢正好有規律關係,因此可以估計近似值
  11. ^ 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 11.14 11.15 11.16 11.17 11.18 11.19 11.20 11.21 11.22 11.23 11.24 11.25 11.26 11.27 11.28 11.29 11.30 11.31 11.32 11.33 11.34 11.35 11.36 Standard Redox Potential Table. [2012-01-14]. (原始内容存档于2021-02-06). 
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Lide, David R. (编), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 87th, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2006, ISBN 0-8493-0487-3 
  13. ^ Greenwood and Earnshaw, p. 1263
  14. ^ Ti Zr Hf 的標準電極電勢變化較規律,因此可估計 Rf的標準電極電勢
  15. ^ Gordon Aylward & Tristan Findlay (2008). "SI Chemical Data", 6th edition (John Wiley & Sons, Australia), ISBN 9780470816387.
  16. ^ List of carbon reactivity series (PDF). web.anl.gov. [2013-06-06]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2017-04-28).  可知碳之活性,九年義務教育課本《化學》九年級第一學期,上海教育出版社,2007年8月第2版,ISBN 978-7-5320-8481-4 第109、112頁、MSDS of carbon. [2013-06-06]. (原始内容存档于2016-03-05). 根據碳的相關安全資料,可之其活性範圍,推之
  17. ^ 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 Vanýsek, Petr (2007). “Electrochemical Series”, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: 88th Edition (Chemical Rubber Company).
  18. ^ 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 Iron | compounds information. [2012-01-14]. (原始内容存档于2021-01-18). 
  19. ^ 19.0 19.1 由−0.454和(2×−0.499 + −0.508) ÷ 3 = −0.502推算出。
  20. ^ “Glyoxal Bisulfite”页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆), Organic Syntheses, Collected Volume 3, p.438 (1955).
  21. ^ Huang, Haiyan; Shuning Wang; Johanna Moll; Rudolf K. Thauer. Electron Bifurcation Involved in the Energy Metabolism of the Acetogenic Bacterium Moorella thermoacetica Growing on Glucose or H2 plus CO2. Journal of Bacteriology. 2012-07-15, 194 (14): 3689–3699 [2013-09-10]. ISSN 0021-9193. doi:10.1128/JB.00385-12. (原始内容存档于2020-12-13). 
  22. ^ Connelly, Neil G.; Geiger, William E. Chemical Redox Agents for Organometallic Chemistry. Chemical Reviews. 1 January 1996, 96 (2): 877–910. PMID 11848774. doi:10.1021/cr940053x. 
  23. ^ 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 Xenon | compounds information. [2012-01-14]. (原始内容存档于2021-03-22). 
  24. ^ Cotton, F. Albert; Wilkinson, Geoffrey; Murillo, Carlos A.; Bochmann, Manfred, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry 6th, New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1999, ISBN 0-471-19957-5 
  25. ^ Redox Reactions, Western Oregon University website. [2012-01-15]. (原始内容存档于2019-08-30).