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核爆电磁脉冲

(重定向自核电磁脉冲

核爆電磁脈衝(英文:Nuclear electromagnetic pulse,縮寫:NEMP)是核爆炸時產生的電磁脈衝。它會導致劇烈的磁場和電場變化,從而對電子設備造成嚴重破壞。在高空爆炸的核彈可製造高空核爆電磁脈衝(HEMP)。

歷史编辑

在早期核試驗中人們已經知道核爆可以產生電磁脈衝,但對其威力並無直觀感覺[1]。由於恩里科·费米的提醒,1945年7月16日美國及世界上第一次核試驗三位一體核試中實驗方對電子設備做了提前保護、隔離[2]。在1958年4月28日的硬饼干一号行动中人類首次觀測到核爆電磁脈衝的效果[3],1962年7月美國「一流星雲」 的高空核試驗中核爆電磁脈衝的威力再次得到確認。這場核試驗中美方在太平洋中心上空400公里(250英里)處引爆了一顆144萬吨核彈,結果導致1,445公里(898英里)外的夏威夷300盞街燈熄滅,破壞了一個微波中繼器并觸發了多個警報器[4]。由於當時夏威夷電子基礎設施建設比美國本土要強,這場電磁脈衝的影響可能還被弱化了一些,如損壞的街燈只佔夏威夷街路燈總數的百分之一到三[5]。這些破壞之後得到了迅速的修復[6]。1981年威廉·布洛德在《科學》雜誌上發佈了三篇論文,使得核爆電磁脈衝的影響進一步為人所周知[1][7][8]

參考文獻编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Broad, William J. "Nuclear Pulse (I): Awakening to the Chaos Factor", Science. 29 May 1981 212: 1009–1012
  2. ^ Bainbridge, K.T., (Report LA-6300-H), Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. May 1976. p. 53 Trinity
  3. ^ Defense Atomic Support Agency. 23 September 1959. "Operation Hardtack Preliminary Report. Technical Summary of Military Effects. Report ADA369152". pp. 346–350. [1]
  4. ^ Vittitoe, Charles N., "Did High-Altitude EMP Cause the Hawaiian Streetlight Incident?" Sandia National Laboratories. June 1989. [2]
  5. ^ Rabinowitz, Mario (1987) "Effect of the Fast Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse on the Electric Power Grid Nationwide: A Different View". IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, PWRD-2, 1199–1222 arXiv:physics/0307127
  6. ^ Theoretical Notes – Note 353, March 1985, "EMP on Honolulu from the Starfish Event" Conrad L. Longmire – Mission Research Corporation
  7. ^ Broad, William J. "Nuclear Pulse (II): Ensuring Delivery of the Doomsday Signal", Science. 5 June 1981 212: 1116–1120
  8. ^ Broad, William J. "Nuclear Pulse (III): Playing a Wild Card", Science. 12 June 1981 212: 1248–1251
  •   本条目引用的公有领域材料来自General Services Administration的文档《Federal Standard 1037C》 (in support of MIL-STD-188)。
  • Vladimir Gurevich "Cyber and Electromagnetic Threats in Modern Relay Protection" - CRC Press (Taylor & Francis Group), Boca Raton – New York – London, 2014, 222 p.
  • Vladimir Gurevich "Protection of Substation Critical Equipment Against Intentional Electromagnetic Threats" - Wiley, London, 2016, 300 p.

擴展閱讀编辑

  • ISBN 978-1-59-248389-1 A 21st Century Complete Guide to Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack Threats, Report of the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic ... High-Altitude Nuclear Weapon EMP Attacks (CD-ROM)
  • ISBN 978-0-16-056127-6 Threat posed by electromagnetic pulse (EMP) to U.S. military systems and civil infrastructure: Hearing before the Military Research and Development Subcommittee - first session, hearing held July 16, 1997 (Unknown Binding)
  • ISBN 978-0-471-01403-4 Electromagnetic Pulse Radiation and Protective Techniques
  • ISBN 978-0-16-080927-9 Report of the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack

外部連結编辑