根瘤菌

根瘤菌主要指与豆类作物根部共生形成根瘤并能固氮的细菌,一般指根瘤菌属慢生根瘤菌属;两属都属于根瘤菌目

根瘤菌属
Rhizobium tropici strain BR816 on TY agar.JPG
琼脂平皿上的热带根瘤菌
科学分类 e
界: 细菌界 Bacteria
门: 變形菌門 Proteobacteria
纲: α-变形菌纲 Alphaproteobacteria
目: 根瘤菌目 Rhizobiales
科: 根瘤菌科 Rhizobiaceae
属: 根瘤菌属 Rhizobium
Frank, 1889
模式种
Rhizobium leguminosarum
(Frank, 1879) Frank, 1889
Species [1]

See text.

大豆的根瘤,每一个都含有數十億根瘤菌(Bradyrhizobium)。

根瘤菌侵入寄主根内,刺激根部皮层和中柱鞘的某些细胞,引起这些细胞的强烈生长,使根的局部膨大形成根瘤;根瘤菌在根内定居,植物供给根瘤菌以矿物养料和能源,根瘤菌固定大气中游离氮气,为植物提供氮素养料,两者在拮抗寄生关系中处于均衡状态而表现共生现象。

根瘤菌细胞呈杆状,有鞭毛荚膜,鞭毛为正常的活动器官,无芽孢革兰氏染色阴性,属需氧型。在根瘤中生活的菌体形式多种多样,有梨形、棍棒型或T、X、Y等型,这种变形的菌体成为类菌体;类菌体在豆科植物体内不生长繁殖,却能与豆科植物共同固氮,对豆科植物有良好作用。

每种根瘤菌只能与一种或几种植物建立共生关系,如下表:

根瘤菌种类 对应共生植物
苜蓿根瘤菌 苜蓿草木樨
三叶草根瘤菌 三叶草
豌豆根瘤菌 豌豆蚕豆
菜豆根瘤菌 菜豆
紫云英根瘤菌 紫云英
大豆根瘤菌 大豆
豇豆根瘤菌 豇豆花生绿豆赤豆柽麻扁豆刀豆

此外,还有些微生物能同非豆类植物共同形成根瘤固氮,主要是一些放线菌(如:小头木麻黄、赤杨、杨梅)、蓝绿菌(如:苏铁、竹柏、满江红)。


下属物种编辑

  • 根瘤菌属 Rhizobium Frank, 1889
    • 苜蓿根瘤菌
    • 百脉根瘤菌
    • Rhizobium acidisoli Román-Ponce et al. 2016
    • Rhizobium aegyptiacum Shamseldin et al. 2017
    • Rhizobium aethiopicum Aserse et al. 2017
    • Rhizobium aggregatum (Hirsch and Müller 1986) Kaur et al. 2011
    • Rhizobium alamii Berge et al. 2009
    • Rhizobium alkalisoli Lu et al. 2009,异名
    • Rhizobium altiplani Baraúna et al. 2016
    • Rhizobium alvei Sheu et al. 2015
    • Rhizobium anhuiense Zhang et al. 2015
    • Rhizobium aquaticum Máthé et al. 2019
    • Rhizobium arenae Zhang et al. 2017
    • Rhizobium arsenicireducens Mohapatra et al. 2020
    • Rhizobium azibense Mnasri et al. 2014
    • Rhizobium azooxidifex Behrendt et al. 2016
    • Rhizobium bangladeshense Rashid et al. 2015
    • Rhizobium binae Rashid et al. 2015
    • Rhizobium borbori Zhang et al. 2011,异名
    • Rhizobium calliandrae Rincón-Rosales et al. 2013
    • Rhizobium capsici Lin et al. 2015
    • Rhizobium cauense Liu et al. 2015
    • Rhizobium cellulosilyticum García-Fraile et al. 2007
    • Rhizobium chutanense Huo et al. 2019
    • Rhizobium ciceri Nour et al. 1994,异名
    • Rhizobium daejeonense Quan et al. 2005
    • Rhizobium dioscoreae Ouyabe et al. 2020
    • Rhizobium ecuadorense Ribeiro et al. 2015
    • Rhizobium endolithicum Parag et al. 2014
    • Rhizobium endophyticum López-López et al. 2011
    • Rhizobium esperanzae Cordeiro et al. 2017
    • Rhizobium etli Segovia et al. 1993
    • Rhizobium fabae Tian et al. 2008
    • Rhizobium favelukesii Torres Tejerizo et al. 2016
    • Rhizobium flavum Gu et al. 2014
    • Rhizobium fredii Scholla and Elkan 1984,异名
    • Rhizobium freirei Dall'Agnol et al. 2013
    • Rhizobium galegae Lindström 1989,异名
    • Rhizobium gallicum Amarger et al. 1997
    • 格氏根瘤菌 Rhizobium gei Shi et al. 2016
    • Rhizobium giardinii Amarger et al. 1997
    • Rhizobium grahamii López-López et al. 2012
    • 海南根瘤菌 Rhizobium hainanense Chen et al. 1997
    • Rhizobium halophytocola Bibi et al. 2012
    • Rhizobium helianthi Wei et al. 2015
    • Rhizobium herbae Ren et al. 2011,异名
    • Rhizobium hidalgonense Yan et al. 2020
    • 华氏根瘤菌 Rhizobium huakuii Chen et al. 1991,异名
    • Rhizobium huautlense Wang et al. 1998,异名
    • Rhizobium indigoferae Wei et al. 2002
    • Rhizobium ipomoeae Sheu et al. 2016
    • Rhizobium jaguaris Rincón-Rosales et al. 2013
    • Rhizobium japonicum (Kirchner 1896) Buchanan 1926,异名
    • Rhizobium laguerreae Saïdi et al. 2014
    • Rhizobium larrymoorei'' (Bouzar and Jones 2001) Young 2004,异名
    • 豌豆根瘤菌 Rhizobium leguminosarum (Frank 1879) Frank 1889
    • Rhizobium lemnae Kittiwongwattana and Thawai 2014
    • Rhizobium lentis Rashid et al. 2015
    • Rhizobium leucaenae Ribeiro et al. 2012
    • Rhizobium loessense Wei et al. 2003,异名
    • Rhizobium loti Jarvis et al. 1982,异名
    • Rhizobium lupini (Schroeter 1886) Eckhardt et al. 1931,异名
    • Rhizobium lusitanum Valverde et al. 2006
    • Rhizobium marinum Liu et al. 2015
    • Rhizobium mayense Rincón-Rosales et al. 2013
    • Rhizobium mediterraneum Nour et al. 1995,异名
    • Rhizobium meliloti Dangeard 1926,异名
    • Rhizobium mesoamericanum López-López et al. 2012
    • Rhizobium mesosinicum Lin et al. 2009
    • Rhizobium metallidurans Grison et al. 2015
    • Rhizobium miluonense Gu et al. 2008
    • Rhizobium mongolense Van Berkum et al. 1998
    • Rhizobium multihospitium Han et al. 2008
    • Rhizobium naphthalenivorans Kaiya et al. 2018
    • Rhizobium nepotum Puławska et al. 2012,异名
    • Rhizobium oryzae Peng et al. 2008,异名
    • Rhizobium oryzicola Zhang et al. 2015
    • Rhizobium oryziradicis Zhao et al. 2017,异名
    • Rhizobium pakistanense corrig. Khalid et al. 2015
    • Rhizobium pakistanensis Khalid et al. 2015,拼写错误
    • Rhizobium paknamense Kittiwongwattana and Thawai 2013
    • Rhizobium paranaense Dall'Agnol et al. 2014
    • Rhizobium petrolearium Zhang et al. 2012
    • Rhizobium phaseoli Dangeard 1926
    • Rhizobium pisi Ramírez-Bahena et al. 2008
    • Rhizobium populi Rozahon et al. 2014
    • Rhizobium pseudoryzae Zhang et al. 2011,异名
    • Rhizobium puerariae Boonsnongcheep et al. 2016
    • Rhizobium pusense Panday et al. 2011,异名
    • Rhizobium radiobacter (Beijerinck and van Delden 1902) Young et al. 2001,异名
    • Rhizobium rhizogenes (Riker et al. 1930) Young et al. 2001
    • Rhizobium rhizophilum Gao et al. 2020
    • Rhizobium rhizoryzae Zhang et al. 2014
    • Rhizobium rosettiformans Kaur et al. 2011
    • Rhizobium rubi (Hildebrand 1940) Young et al. 2001,异名
    • Rhizobium ruizarguesonis Jorrin et al. 2020
    • Rhizobium selenireducens Hunter et al. 2008
    • Rhizobium selenitireducens corrig. Hunter et al. 2008
    • Rhizobium skierniewicense Puławska et al. 2012
    • Rhizobium smilacinae Zhang et al. 2015
    • Rhizobium soli Yoon et al. 2010
    • Rhizobium sophorae Jiao et al. 2015
    • Rhizobium sophoriradicis Jiao et al. 2015
    • Rhizobium sphaerophysae Xu et al. 2012
    • Rhizobium straminoryzae Lin et al. 2014
    • Rhizobium subbaraonis Ramana et al. 2013
    • Rhizobium sullae Squartini et al. 2002
    • 太白山根瘤菌 Rhizobium taibaishanense Yao et al. 2012,异名
    • Rhizobium tarimense Turdahon et al. 2013
    • 天山根瘤菌 Rhizobium tianshanense Chen et al. 1995,异名
    • Rhizobium tibeticum Hou et al. 2009
    • Rhizobium trifolii Dangeard 1926,异名
    • Rhizobium tropici Martínez-Romero et al. 1991
    • Rhizobium tubonense Zhang et al. 2011
    • Rhizobium tumorigenes Kuzmanović et al. 2019
    • Rhizobium undicola (de Lajudie et al. 1998) Young et al. 2001,异名
    • Rhizobium vallis Wang et al. 2011
    • Rhizobium vignae Ren et al. 2011,异名
    • Rhizobium viscosum (Gasdorf et al. 1965) Flores-Félix et al. 2017
    • Rhizobium vitis (Ophel and Kerr 1990) Young et al. 2001,异名
    • Rhizobium wenxiniae Gao et al. 2017
    • Rhizobium wuzhouense Yuan et al. 2018
    • Rhizobium yanglingense Tan et al. 2001
    • Rhizobium yantingense Chen et al. 2015
    • Rhizobium zeae Celador-Lera et al. 2017
  • 慢生根瘤菌属 Bradyrhizobium Jordan,1982

参考资料编辑

  1. ^ J.P. Euzéby. Rhizobium. List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). [2012-05-02]. (原始内容存档于2012年5月23日). 

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