梭菌屬

梭菌科的一属细菌

梭菌屬(学名:Clostridium),菌體呈梭狀,又稱梭狀芽孢桿菌屬厭氧芽孢桿菌屬,芽孢常比菌體大,是一類能產生内生孢子厭氧革蘭氏陽性菌

梭菌屬Infobox info icon2.svg
Clostridium difficile 01.jpg
艱難梭菌
科学分类 编辑
域: 细菌域 Bacteria
门: 厚壁菌门 Bacillota
纲: 梭菌綱 Clostridia
目: 梭菌目 Clostridiales
科: 梭菌科 Clostridiaceae
属: 梭菌屬 Clostridium
Prazmowski, 1880
模式種
Clostridium butyricum
Prazmowski 1880

见正文

梭菌屬廣泛分佈於自然界,以土壤中最多,芽孢圓形或橢圓形。除了產氣莢膜梭菌無鞭毛外,大多有鞭毛。大部份的梭菌屬可以水解糖、蛋白质,又可产生外毒素,成為一些疾病的原因。

该属的模式种为丁酸梭菌(Clostridium butyricum)。

下属物种编辑

本属包括以下物种:[1]

  • 不同梭菌 Clostridium absonum Nakamura et al., 1973
  • 醋酸梭菌 Clostridium aceticum (ex Wieringa 1940) Gottschalk and Braun, 1981,丙酮丁醇杆菌,丙酮丁醇梭菌,醋酪酸梭状芽孢杆菌,醋酪酸梭状芽胞杆菌
  • Clostridium acetireducens Örlygsson et al. 1996
  • 丙酮丁醇梭杆菌 Clostridium acetobutylicum McCoy et al. 1926
  • Clostridium acidisoli Kuhner et al. 2000
  • Clostridium aciditolerans Lee et al. 2007
  • Clostridium acidiurici (Liebert 1909) Barker 1938
  • 尿酸发酵梭状芽胞杆菌 Clostridium acidurici corrig. (Liebert 1909) Barker 1938,尿酸梭菌
  • 腐气梭状芽胞杆菌 Clostridium aerofoetidum ,臭气杆菌,臭气梭菌
  • 产气梭菌 Clostridium aerogenes,产气梭状芽孢杆菌
  • 耐氧梭菌 Clostridium aerotolerans van Gylswyk and van der Toorn 1987
  • Clostridium aestuarii Kim et al. 2007
  • Clostridium akagii Kuhner et al. 2000
  • Clostridium aldenense Warren et al. 2007
  • Clostridium aldrichii Yang et al. 1990
  • Clostridium algidicarnis Lawson et al. 1995
  • Clostridium algidixylanolyticum Broda et al. 2000
  • Clostridium algifaecis Wu et al. 2014
  • Clostridium algoriphilum Shcherbakova et al. 2010
  • 碱性纤维素梭菌 Clostridium alkalicellulosi Zhilina et al. 2006 = Clostridium alkalicellum Zhilina et al. 2006
  • 亚马逊梭菌 Clostridium amazonense O'Neal et al. 2015
  • Clostridium aminophilum Paster et al. 1993
  • Clostridium aminovalericum Hardman and Stadtman 1960
  • Clostridium amygdalinum Parshina et al. 2003
  • Clostridium amylolyticum Song and Dong 2008
  • Clostridium arbusti Jung et al. 2010
  • Clostridium arcticum corrig. (ex Jordan and McNicol 1979) Cato et al. 1988
  • Clostridium argentinense Suen et al. 1988
  • Clostridium articum (ex Jordan and McNicol 1979) Cato et al. 1988
  • Clostridium asparagiforme Mohan et al. 2007
  • Clostridium aurantibutyricum Hellinger 1944
  • 产乙醇梭菌 Clostridium autoethanogenum
  • Clostridium barati (Prévot 1938) Holdeman and Moore 1970 = 巴氏梭菌 Clostridium baratii (Prévot 1938) Holdeman and Moore 1970
  • Clostridium barkeri Stadtman et al. 1972
  • Clostridium bartlettii Song et al. 2004
  • Clostridium beihaiense Dong et al. 2018
  • 拜氏梭菌 Clostridium beijerinckii Donker 1926
  • 双酶梭菌 Clostridium bifermentans (Weinberg and Séguin 1918) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Clostridium bolteae Song et al. 2003
  • Clostridium bornimense Hahnke et al. 2014
  • 肉毒杆菌Clostridium botulinum (van Ermengem 1896) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Clostridium bovifaecis Zhu et al. 2018
  • Clostridium bowmanii Spring et al. 2003
  • Clostridium bryantii Stieb and Schink 1985
  • Clostridium budayi (Le Blaye and Guggenheim 1914) Bernard et al. 2018
  • 丁酸梭菌 Clostridium butyricum Prazmowski 1880
  • 尸毒梭菌 Clostridium cadaveris (Klein 1899) McClung and McCoy 1957
  • Clostridium caenicola Shiratori et al. 2009
  • Clostridium caminithermale Brisbarre et al. 2003
  • 食一氧化碳梭菌 Clostridium carboxidivorans Liou et al. 2005
  • Clostridium carnis (Klein 1904) Spray 1939
  • Clostridium cavendishii Bowman et al. 2010
  • Clostridium celatum Hauschild and Holdeman 1974
  • Clostridium celerecrescens Palop et al. 1989
  • Clostridium cellobioparum Hungate 1944
  • "Clostridium cellulofermentans" He et al. 1991
  • Clostridium cellulolyticum Petitdemange et al. 1984
  • Clostridium cellulosi He et al. 1991
  • Clostridium cellulovorans Sleat et al. 1985
  • Clostridium chartatabidum Kelly et al. 1996,瘤胃纤维分解细菌
  • 气肿疽梭菌 Clostridium chauvoei (Arloing et al. 1887) Scott 1928,鸣疽梭状芽孢杆菌,肖氏芽孢梭菌
  • Clostridium chromiireducens Inglett et al. 2011
  • Clostridium citroniae Warren et al. 2007
  • Clostridium clariflavum Shiratori et al. 2009
  • 梭状梭菌 Clostridium clostridiiforme (Burri and Ankersmit 1906) Kaneuchi et al. 1976
  • Clostridium clostridioforme corrig. (Burri and Ankersmit 1906) Kaneuchi et al. 1976
  • Clostridium coccoides Kaneuchi et al. 1976
  • Clostridium cochlearium (Douglas et al. 1919) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Clostridium cocleatum Kaneuchi et al. 1979
  • Clostridium colicanis Greetham et al. 2003
  • 鹌鹑梭菌 Clostridium colinum (ex Berkhoff et al. 1974) Berkhoff 1985
  • Clostridium collagenovorans Jain and Zeikus 1988
  • Clostridium combesii (Prévot and Laplanche 1947) Bernard et al. 2018
  • Clostridium composti Shin et al. 2018
  • 克萨氏梭菌 Clostridium coskatii,一种新的产乙醇梭菌属物种
  • 柱盤孢梭菌 Clostridium cylindrosporum (ex Barker and Beck 1942) Andreesen et al. 1985
  • 艰难梭菌 Clostridium difficile (Hall and O'Toole 1935) Prévot 1938
  • Clostridium diolis Biebl and Spröer 2003
  • Clostridium disporicum Horn 1987
  • 德可氏梭菌 Clostridium drakei Liou et al. 2005
  • Clostridium durum Smith and Cato 1974
  • Clostridium estertheticum Collins et al. 1993
  • 谲诈梭菌 Clostridium fallax (Weinberg and Séguin 1915) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Clostridium felsineum (Carbone and Tombolato 1917) Bergey et al. 1939
  • Clostridium fermenticellae Xu et al. 2019
  • Clostridium fervidum corrig. Patel et al. 1987
  • Clostridium fervidus Patel et al. 1987
  • Clostridium fessum Seo et al. 2020
  • Clostridium fimetarium Kotsyurbenko et al. 1997
  • Clostridium formicoaceticum Andreesen et al. 1970 = 自养乙酸梭菌 Clostridium formicaceticum Andreesen et al. 1970
  • Clostridium frigidicarnis Broda et al. 1999
  • Clostridium frigoris Spring et al. 2003
  • Clostridium ganghwense Kim et al. 2006
  • Clostridium gasigenes Broda et al. 2000
  • Clostridium ghoni Prévot 1938
  • Clostridium ghonii corrig. Prévot 1938
  • 乙二醇梭菌 Clostridium glycolicum Gaston and Stadtman 1963
  • Clostridium glycyrrhizinilyticum Sakuma et al. 2006
  • Clostridium grantii Mountfort et al. 1996
  • 广西梭菌 Clostridium guangxiense Zhao et al. 2017
  • 溶血梭菌 Clostridium haemolyticum (Hall 1929) Scott et al. 1935
  • Clostridium halophilium Fendrich et al. 1991
  • Clostridium halophilum corrig. Fendrich et al. 1991
  • 矛形梭菌 Clostridium hastiforme MacLennan 1939
  • Clostridium hathewayi Steer et al. 2002
  • Clostridium herbivorans Varel et al. 1995
  • Clostridium hiranonis Kitahara et al. 2001
  • 溶组织梭菌 Clostridium histolyticum (Weinberg and Séguin 1916) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Clostridium homopropionicum Dörner and Schink 1991
  • Clostridium huakuii Ruan et al. 2014
  • Clostridium hungatei Monserrate et al. 2001
  • Clostridium hydrogeniformans Bowman et al. 2010
  • Clostridium hydroxybenzoicum Zhang et al. 1994
  • Clostridium hylemonae Kitahara et al. 2000
  • 印度梭菌 Clostridium indicum Gundawar et al. 2019
  • Clostridium indolis McClung and McCoy 1957
  • 无害梭菌 Clostridium innocuum Smith and King 1962,无害芽胞梭菌
  • Clostridium intestinale corrig. Lee et al. 1989
  • Clostridium intestinalis Lee et al. 1989
  • Clostridium irregulare corrig. (Choukévitch 1911) Prévot 1938
  • Clostridium irregularis (Choukévitch 1911) Prévot 1938
  • Clostridium isatidis Padden et al. 1999
  • Clostridium jeddahense Lagier et al. 2016
  • Clostridium jejuense Jeong et al. 2004
  • Clostridium josui Sukhumavasi et al. 1988
  • Clostridium kluyveri Barker and Taha 1942
  • Clostridium lactatifermentans van der Wielen et al. 2002
  • Clostridium lacusfryxellense Spring et al. 2003
  • Clostridium laramie Kalchayanand et al. 1993
  • Clostridium laramiense corrig. Kalchayanand et al. 1993
  • Clostridium lavalense Domingo et al. 2009
  • Clostridium lentocellum Murray et al. 1987
  • Clostridium lentoputrescens Hartsell and Rettger 1934
  • Clostridium leptum Moore et al. 1976
  • 泥渣梭菌 Clostridium limosum André 1948
  • Clostridium liquoris Yin et al. 2016
  • Clostridium litorale Fendrich et al. 1991
  • Clostridium lituseburense (Laplanche and Saissac 1948) McClung and McCoy 1957
  • Clostridium ljungdahlii Tanner et al. 1993
  • Clostridium lortetii Oren 1984
  • Clostridium lundense Cirne et al. 2006
  • Clostridium luticellarii Wang et al. 2015
  • Clostridium magnum Schink 1984
  • Clostridium malenominatum (Weinberg et al. 1937) Spray 1948
  • Clostridium mangenotii (Prévot and Zimmès-Chaverou 1947) McClung and McCoy 1957
  • 最大梭菌 Clostridium maximum (Lindner 1888) Lawson and Rainey 2016
  • Clostridium mayombei Kane et al. 1992
  • 食甲氧基苯甲酸梭菌 Clostridium methoxybenzovorans Mechichi et al. 1999
  • Clostridium methylpentosum Himelbloom and Canale-Parola 1989
  • Clostridium moniliforme (Repaci 1910) Lawson and Rainey 2016
  • Clostridium neonatale Bernard et al. 2018
  • Clostridium neopropionicum Tholozan et al. 1995
  • Clostridium neuense Zhao et al. 2017
  • Clostridium nexile Holdeman and Moore 1974
  • Clostridium nitritogenes (Prévot 1940) Bernard et al. 2018
  • Clostridium nitrophenolicum Suresh et al. 2007
  • 诺氏梭菌 Clostridium novyi (Migula 1900) Bergey et al. 1923,诺威氏梭状芽孢杆菌
  • Clostridium oceanicum Smith 1970
  • Clostridium orbiscindens Winter et al. 1991
  • Clostridium oroticum (Wachsman and Barker 1954) Cato et al. 1968
  • Clostridium oryzae Horino et al. 2015
  • Clostridium oxalicum Dehning and Schink 1990
  • Clostridium pabulibutyricum Kobayashi et al. 2017
  • Clostridium papyrosolvens Madden et al. 1982
  • Clostridium paradoxum Li et al. 1993
  • Clostridium paraperfringens Nakamura et al. 1970
  • 类腐败梭菌 Clostridium paraputrificum (Bienstock 1906) Snyder 1936
  • Clostridium pascui Wilde et al. 1997
  • 巴氏梭菌 Clostridium pasteurianum Winogradsky 1895
  • Clostridium peptidivorans Mechichi et al. 2000
  • Clostridium perenne (Prévot 1940) McClung and McCoy 1957
  • 产气荚膜梭菌 Clostridium perfringens (Veillon and Zuber 1898) Hauduroy et al. 1937
  • Clostridium phytofermentans Warnick et al. 2002
  • 毛状梭菌 Clostridium piliforme (ex Tyzzer 1917) Duncan et al. 1993
  • Clostridium polyendosporum (Duda et al. 1996) Rainey et al. 2016
  • Clostridium polysaccharolyticum (van Gylswyk 1981) van Gylswyk et al. 1983
  • Clostridium populeti Sleat and Mah 1985
  • Clostridium prolinivorans Huang et al. 2020
  • Clostridium propionicum Cardon and Barker 1946
  • Clostridium proteoclasticum Attwood et al. 1996
  • Clostridium proteolyticum Jain and Zeikus 1988
  • Clostridium psychrophilum Spring et al. 2003
  • Clostridium punense Lanjekar et al. 2015
  • Clostridium puniceum Lund et al. 1981
  • Clostridium purinilyticum corrig. Dürre et al. 1981
  • Clostridium purinolyticum Dürre et al. 1981
  • Clostridium putrefaciens (McBryde 1911) Sturges and Drake 1927
  • Clostridium putrificum (Trevisan 1889) Reddish and Rettger 1922
  • Clostridium quercicolum Stankewich et al. 1971
  • Clostridium quinii Svensson et al. 1995
  • 拉氏梭菌 Clostridium ragsdalei,拉格斯代尔梭菌
  • 多枝梭菌 Clostridium ramosum (Veillon and Zuber 1898) Holdeman et al. 1971
  • Clostridium rectum (Heller 1922) Holdeman and Moore 1972
  • Clostridium roseum (ex McCoy and McClung 1935) Cato et al. 1988
  • Clostridium saccharobutylicum Keis et al. 2001
  • Clostridium saccharogumia Clavel et al. 2007
  • Clostridium saccharolyticum Murray et al. 1982
  • Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum Keis et al. 2001
  • Clostridium sardiniense corrig. Prévot 1938
  • Clostridium sardiniensis Prévot 1938
  • Clostridium sartagoforme corrig. Partansky and Henry 1935
  • Clostridium sartagoformum Partansky and Henry 1935
  • Clostridium saudiense corrig. Angelakis et al. 2016
  • Clostridium saudii Angelakis et al. 2016
  • Clostridium scatologenes (Weinberg and Ginsbourg 1927) Prévot 1948
  • Clostridium schirmacherense Alam et al. 2006
  • Clostridium scindens Morris et al. 1985
  • 塞内加尔梭菌 Clostridium senegalense Mishra et al. 2015
  • 败毒梭菌 Clostridium septicum (Macé 1889) Ford 1927
  • 索氏梭菌 Clostridium sordellii (Hall and Scott 1927) Prévot 1938
  • 楔形梭菌 Clostridium sphenoides (Douglas et al. 1919) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Clostridium spiroforme Kaneuchi et al. 1979
  • 生孢梭菌 Clostridium sporogenes (Metchnikoff 1908) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Clostridium sporosphaeroides Soriano and Soriano 1948
  • Clostridium stercorarium Madden 1983
  • Clostridium sticklandii Stadtman and McClung 1957
  • Clostridium straminisolvens Kato et al. 2004
  • 近端梭菌 Clostridium subterminale (Hall and Whitehead 1927) Spray 1948
  • Clostridium sufflavum Nishiyama et al. 2009
  • Clostridium sulfidigenes Sallam and Steinbüchel 2009
  • Clostridium swellfunianum Liu et al. 2015
  • Clostridium symbiosum (Stevens 1956) Kaneuchi et al. 1976
  • Clostridium tagluense Suetin et al. 2009
  • Clostridium tarantellae (Udey et al. 1977) Lawson and Rainey 2016
  • Clostridium tepidiprofundi Slobodkina et al. 2008
  • Clostridium tepidum Dobritsa et al. 2017
  • Clostridium termitidis Hethener et al. 1992
  • 第三梭菌 Clostridium tertium (Henry 1917) Bergey et al. 1923
  • 破伤风梭菌 Clostridium tetani (Flügge 1886) Bergey et al. 1923,破伤风芽孢梭菌
  • Clostridium tetanomorphum (ex Bulloch et al. 1919) Wilde et al. 1989
  • Clostridium thermaceticum corrig. Fontaine et al. 1942
  • Clostridium thermarum Liu et al. 2021
  • Clostridium thermautotrophicum corrig. Wiegel et al. 1982
  • 热醋酸梭菌 Clostridium thermoaceticum Fontaine et al. 1942
  • 热嗜酸梭菌 Clostridium thermoacidophilus
  • 热产气梭菌 Clostridium thermoaerogenes
  • 嗜热碱梭菌 Clostridium thermoalcaliphilum Li et al. 1994
  • Clostridium thermoautotrophicum Wiegel et al. 1982
  • 热丁酸梭菌 Clostridium thermobutyricum Wiegel et al. 1989
  • 热介纤维素梭菌 Clostridium thermocellulaseum
  • 热纤梭菌 Clostridium thermocellum Viljoen et al. 1926
  • Clostridium thermocopriae Jin et al. 1988
  • 温水硫磺梭菌 Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum Klaushofer and Parkkinen 1965
  • 嗜热乳酸梭菌 Clostridium thermolacticum Le Ruyet et al. 1988,热乳梭菌
  • 热棕榈梭菌 Clostridium thermopalmarium Soh et al. 1991,帕姆酒耐热梭菌
  • Clostridium thermopapyrolyticum Méndez et al. 1991
  • 嗜热梭菌 Clostridium thermophilum
  • 热腐梭菌 Clostridium thermoputrificum
  • 嗜热化糖梭状芽胞杆菌 Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum McClung 1935
  • Clostridium thermosuccinogenes Drent et al. 1995
  • Clostridium thermosulfurigenes corrig. Schink and Zeikus 1983
  • Clostridium thermosulfurogenes Schink and Zeikus 1983
  • Clostridium thiosulfatireducens Hernández-Eugenio et al. 2002
  • 酪丁酸梭菌 Clostridium tyrobutyricum van Beynum and Pette 1935
  • Clostridium uliginosum Matthies et al. 2001
  • 乌尔蒂纳梭菌 Clostridium ultunense Schnürer et al. 1996
  • Clostridium ventriculi (Goodsir 1842) Lawson and Rainey 2016
  • Clostridium villosum Love et al. 1979
  • Clostridium vincentii Mountfort et al. 1997
  • 绿梭菌 Clostridium viride Buckel et al. 1995
  • Clostridium vulturis Paek et al. 2015
  • 魏氏梭状芽孢杆菌 Clostridium welchii
  • Clostridium xylanolyticum Rogers and Baecker 1991
  • Clostridium xylanovorans Mechichi et al. 2000

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ Clostridium Prazmowski, 1880. GBIF. [2022-04-17]. (原始内容存档于2022-06-04).