欧洲各共同体

欧洲各共同体(英語:European Communities, EC; 法語:Communautés européennes, CE; 德語:Europäische Gemeinschaften, EG/EGen)是一個已不再被歐盟官方使用的制度名稱(使用期間1967-2009年)。

1973年欧洲各共同体。

二戰後的歐洲先後成立了三個獨立運作的共同體:欧洲经济共同体欧洲煤钢共同体欧洲原子能共同体,各自有行政組織。自从《合并条约》(1965年签署、1967年生效)以来,“欧洲各共同体”共同拥有相同的机构,包括“欧洲各共同体委员会”(欧盟委员会前身)和“欧洲各共同体(部长)理事会”(欧盟部长理事会前身)。這使得同一個機構擁有三個不同的稱呼。

1993年11月1日生效的《馬斯垂特條約》(又稱:歐盟條約)將“欧洲各共同体”作為“欧盟三支柱的第一支柱”。

欧洲煤钢共同体条约巴黎條約)于2002年到期,此前“欧洲各共同体”也可以被称为欧洲三共同体

2009年12月1日生效的《里斯本條約》廢止了欧洲共同体(原欧洲经济共同体),其地位和任務由歐盟承接。只剩下一個“欧洲原子能共同体”仍運作著。至此,“欧洲各共同体”的名稱由於不再適於形容歐盟的運作方式,因此不再被官方使用

歐洲各共同體演變圖编辑

第二次世界大战结束后,欧洲主权国家在越来越多的领域缔结了条约,从而在所谓的欧洲一体化项目或欧洲重建 (法語:la construction européenne) 中合作和协调政策(或共同主权)。下列时间表概括了欧洲联盟 (EU) 的成立过程和联合的主体框架。20世纪50年代根据舒曼计划成立了欧洲各共同体(EC),而在欧洲各共同体实际上停止运作后欧盟从中继承了其许多责任。

注释:
  S: 签名
  F: 生效
  T: 终止
  E: 过期
    事实上废弃
  关于欧共体/欧盟框架:
   事实上在其中
   在外边
                    欧洲联盟 (EU) [欧洲联盟历史]  
  欧洲各共同体 (EC) 欧盟三支柱
歐洲原子能共同體 [继续]      
  /   /   /   欧洲煤钢共同体 (ECSC)  
    欧洲经济共同体 (EEC)    
            申根区 欧洲经济共同体
TREVI英语TREVI 刑事領域警務與司法合作 (JHA, 欧盟三支柱  
    北大西洋公约组织 (NATO) [History of NATO英语History of NATO] 刑事領域警務與司法合作 (PJCC, 欧盟三支柱)
   
英法關係
[Western Union Defence Organisation英语Western Union Defence Organisation Western_Union_(alliance)#Cannibalisation_and_marginalisation英语Western_Union_(alliance)#Cannibalisation_and_marginalisation to 北大西洋公约组织] European Political Co-operation英语European Political Co-operation (EPC)   共同外交与安全政策
(CFSP, 欧盟三支柱)
  Western Union (alliance)英语Western Union (alliance) (WU)   /   西歐聯盟 (WEU) [西歐聯盟 defined following the WEU's 1984 Rome Declaration英语Rome Declaration 西歐聯盟 to the 欧洲联盟]
     
[Social, cultural tasks History of the Common Security and Defence Policy#1954 – 1970: A dormant WEU is established英语History of the Common Security and Defence Policy#1954 – 1970: A dormant WEU is established to 欧洲委员会] [欧洲委员会]                
      欧洲委员会 (CoE)
Treaty of Dunkirk英语Treaty of Dunkirk¹
S: 4 March 1947
F: 8 September 1947
E: 8 September 1997
布魯塞爾條約 (1948年)¹
S: 17 March 1948
F: 25 August 1948
T: 30 June 2011
歐洲委員會法規 and 北大西洋公约 treaties¹
S: 5 May/4 April 1949
F: 3 August/24 August 1949
Paris treaties: 巴黎条约 (1951年) and 欧洲防务共同体
S: 18 April 1951/27 May 1952
F: 23 July 1952/—
E: 23 July 2002/—
布魯塞爾條約 (1948年)¹
S: 23 October 1954
F: 6 May 1955
Rome treaties: 羅馬條約² and Euratom Treaty英语Euratom Treaty
S: 25 March 1957
F: 1 January 1958
合并条约³
S: 8 April 1965
F: 1 July 1967
Davignon report英语Davignon report
S: 27 October 1970
TREVI英语TREVI
S: 2 December 1975
單一歐洲法案 (SEA)
S: 17/28 February 1986
F: 1 July 1987
申根公约 and 申根区
S: 14 June 1985/19 June 1990
F: 26 March 1995
马斯特里赫特条约²,
S: 7 February 1992
F: 1 November 1993
阿姆斯特丹条约
S: 2 October 1997
F: 1 May 1999
尼斯条约
S: 26 February 2001
F: 1 February 2003
里斯本条约
S: 13 December 2007
F: 1 December 2009
¹Although not EU treaties per se, these treaties affected the History of the Common Security and Defence Policy英语History of the Common Security and Defence Policy of the 共同安全与防务政策, a main part of the CFSP. The Franco-British alliance established by the Dunkirk Treaty was de facto superseded by WU. The CFSP pillar was bolstered by some of the security structures that had been established within the remit of the 1955 布魯塞爾條約 (1948年) (MBT). The Brussels Treaty was 西歐聯盟 in 2011, consequently dissolving the WEU, as the mutual defence clause that the Lisbon Treaty provided for EU was considered to render the WEU superfluous. The EU thus de facto superseded the WEU.
²The treaties of Maastricht and Rome form the EU's 歐洲聯盟基本條約, and are also referred to as the Treaty on European Union英语Treaty on European Union (TEU) and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union英语Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), respectively. They are amended by secondary treaties.
³The 欧洲各共同体 obtained common institutions and a shared 法律主體 (i.e. ability to e.g. sign treaties in their own right).
⁴Between the EU's founding in 1993 and consolidation in 2009, the union consisted of 欧盟三支柱, the first of which were the European Communities. The other two pillars consisted of additional areas of cooperation that had been added to the EU's remit.
⁵The consolidation meant that the EU inherited the European Communities' 法律主體 and that the 欧盟三支柱, resulting in the EU framework as such covering all policy areas. Executive/legislative power in each area was instead determined by a distribution of competencies between 歐洲聯盟機構 and 欧洲联盟成员国. This distribution, as well as treaty provisions for policy areas in which unanimity is required and Double majority#European Union英语Double majority#European Union is possible, reflects the depth of EU integration as well as the EU's partly 超國家主義 (國際關係) and partly 政府間主義 nature.
⁶Plans to establish a Treaty establishing the European Political Community英语Treaty establishing the European Political Community (EPC) were shelved following the French failure to ratify the 欧洲防务共同体 (EDC). The EPC would have combined the ECSC and the EDC.

相关编辑


中文歧義编辑

在中文资料中,“欧洲各共同体”经常與“欧洲共同体”(简称“欧共体”)混淆。英語、法語、德語等歐洲語言中,“欧洲各共同体”是“欧洲共同体”的复数形式,而中文没有复数。另外,在歐盟一些國家的語言中“欧洲各共同体”和“欧洲共同体”的简称相同(英語:EC,法語:CE),有些則能靠詞尾變化作出區分(例如德語:歐洲共同體為EG,歐洲各共同體為EGen)。