毒蝰(學名:Vipera aspis)是蝰屬的一種毒蛇[4]。其毒性很強,人類被咬後死亡率達4%[5]。其種加詞來自希臘語,意思就是“毒蛇”[6]。它有五個亞種[7]

毒蝰Infobox info icon2.svg
Asp Viper (Vipera aspis) female (found by Jean NICOLAS) (35565228091).jpg
科学分类 编辑
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 脊索动物门 Chordata
纲: 爬行纲 Reptilia
目: 有鳞目 Squamata
亚目: 蛇亚目 Serpentes
科: 蝰科 Viperidae
属: 蝰属 Vipera
种: 毒蝰 V. aspis
二名法
Vipera aspis
Vipera aspis dis.png
異名[3]
  • [Coluber] aspis Linnaeus, 1758
  • Vipera Francisci Redi
    Laurenti, 1768[1][2]
  • Vipera Mosis Charas Laurenti, 1768
  • Vipera vulgaris
    Latreille in Sonnini & Latreille, 1801
  • Vipera ocellata
    Latreille in Sonnini & Latreille, 1801
  • Coluber Charasii Shaw, 1802
  • [Vipera (Echidna)] Aspis
    Merrem, 1820
  • C[hersea]. vulgaris — Fleming, 1822
  • Vipera aspis — Metaxa, 1823
  • Aspis ocellata Fitzinger, 1826
  • [Pelias] Col[uber]. aspis
    F. Boie, 1827
  • Berus Vulgaris Gray, 1831
  • Vipera aspis var. ocellata
    Bonaparte, 1834
  • Vipera aspis var. ocellata
    Massalongo, 1853
  • V[ipera]. (Vipera) aspis
    Jan, 1863
  • Vipera berus subspec. aspis
    Camerano, 1888
  • Vipera aspis Boulenger, 1896
  • Vipera aspis var. lineata
    Düringen, 1897
  • [Vipera aspis] var. Delalande Phisalix, 1902
  • Vipera aspis aspis
    Mertens, 1925
  • Mesovipera aspis
    — A.F.T. Reuss, 1927
  • Mesovipera maculata
    A.F.T. Reuss, 1930 (nomen nudum)
  • Mesovipera maculata aspis
    — A.F.T. Reuss, 1930 (nomen nudum)
  • Vipera ammodytes aspis
    — Schwarz, 1936
  • Vipera aspis delalande
    — M. Phisalix, 1968
  • Vipera (Rhinaspis) aspis aspis
    Obst, 1983
  • Vipera aspis Golay et al., 1993

分類编辑

亞種[7] 命名人[7] 分佈[4]
V. aspis aspis (Linnaeus, 1758) 歐洲大部分地區
V. aspis atra Meisner, 1820 瑞士、法國和意大利阿爾卑斯山脈地區
V. aspis francisciredi Laurenti, 1768 意大利中部
V. aspis hugyi Schinz, 1833 意大利南部
V. aspis zinnikeri Kramer, 1958 加斯科尼安道尔和臨近的西班牙地區

特征编辑

其體長一般在60-65厘米(24-26英寸)之間,雄蛇最長可達85 cm(33英寸),雌性則為75 cm(30英寸),但雄性身體要比雌性細一些.。[4]

參考文獻编辑

  1. ^ The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.
  2. ^ Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume III., Containing the...Viperidæ. Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). (Taylor and Francis, Printers.) London. xiv + 727 pp. + Plates I.- XXV. (Vipera aspis, pp. 481-485.)
  3. ^ McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Mallow D, Ludwig D, Nilson G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida. 359 pp. ISBN 0-89464-877-2.
  5. ^ Street D. 1979. The Reptiles of Northern and Central Europe. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd. 268 pp. ISBN 0-7134-1374-3.
  6. ^ Gotch AF. 1986. Reptiles – Their Latin Names Explained. Poole, UK: Blandford Press. 176 pp. ISBN 0-7137-1704-1.
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 Vipera aspis. ITIS. [2006-08-13]. 

外部連接编辑