沙棘
Hippophae rhamnoides-01 (xndr).JPG
沙棘
科学分类 编辑
界: 植物界 Plantae
演化支 被子植物 Angiosperms
演化支 真双子叶植物 Eudicots
演化支 蔷薇类植物 Rosids
目: 蔷薇目 Rosales
科: 胡頹子科 Elaeagnaceae
属: 沙棘屬 Hippophae
种: 沙棘 H. rhamnoides
二名法
Hippophae rhamnoides
L., 1753
異名
  • Elaeagnus rhamnoides
  • Rhamnoides hippophae
  • Osyris rhamnoides
  • Hippophae angustifolia
  • Hippophae littoralis
  • Hippophae stourdziana
  • Hippophae sibirica
  • Hippophae rhamnoideum
  • Hippophaë rhamnoides

沙棘(學名:Hippophae rhamnoides),或作海沙棘[1],是沙棘屬的一種帶有棘刺的落葉灌木,原產於亞洲和歐洲的溫帶、寒溫帶地區[2]。沙棘可防風固沙,其果實可以食用或用來製作飲料,此外沙棘果在美容和藥用上也有價值。

形態编辑

 
沙棘的棘刺和果實

作為一種落葉灌木,沙棘的高度在二米至四米之間[2],枝幹粗糙、外皮呈黑色[2],葉披針形[3]。在種下三年後開花[1],雌雄異株,通過風來傳播種子[2]

單個果實重量在270至480毫克之間,富含維生素C、E、B12[4]和類胡蘿蔔素、類黃酮和脂肪酸[5]

共生菌编辑

沙棘的根系十分發達,而且當植株成長至一至兩年,其根會開始長出含弗兰克氏菌英语FrankiaFrankia英语Frankia,屬放線菌門)的固氮共生菌[6][7][8]。因著這層關係,種植有沙棘的土壤都含豐富氮肥。共生菌的固氮活動速率並不固定,會受外間天氣或額外氮肥的施與而影響[6][9]

參考文獻编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Bernáth, J.; Földesi, D. Sea Buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.):: A Promising New Medicinal and Food Crop. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants. 1992-07-13, 1 (1-2): 27–35. ISSN 1049-6475. doi:10.1300/J044v01n01_04 (英语). 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Li, Thomas S.C.; Schroeder, W.R. Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.): A Multipurpose Plant. HortTechnology. 1996-10, 6 (4): 370–380. ISSN 1063-0198. doi:10.21273/HORTTECH.6.4.370. 
  3. ^ Synge, PM. Dictionary of gardening: A practical and scientific encyclopaedia of horticulture 2. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1974. ISBN 978-0198691068. 
  4. ^ Stobdan, Tsering; Chaurasia, Om Prakash; Korekar, Girish; Yadav, Ashish; Singh, Shashi. Attributes of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) to Meet Nutritional Requirements in High Altitude.. Defence Science Journal. 2010-03-29, 60 (2): 226–230. doi:10.14429/dsj.60.344. 
  5. ^ Bal, Lalit M.; Meda, Venkatesh; Naik, S. N.; Satya, Santosh. Sea buckthorn berries: A potential source of valuable nutrients for nutraceuticals and cosmoceuticals. Food Research International. Exotic Fruits: their Composition, Nutraceutical and Agroindustrial Potential. 2011-08-01, 44 (7): 1718–1727. ISSN 0963-9969. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2011.03.002 (英语). 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Stewart, W. D. P.; Pearson, M. C. Nodulation and nitrogen-fixation byHippophaë rhamnoides L. in the field. Plant and Soil. 1967-04-01, 26 (2): 348–360. ISSN 1573-5036. doi:10.1007/BF01880184 (英语). 
  7. ^ Gatner, E. M. S.; Gardner, I. C. Observations on the fine structure of the root nodule endophyte of Hippophaë rhamnoides L.. Archiv für Mikrobiologie. 1970-09-01, 70 (3): 183–196. ISSN 1432-072X. doi:10.1007/BF00407709 (英语). 
  8. ^ Rongsen, L.; International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu (Nepal) eng 165171. Seabuckthorn: a multipurpose plant species for fragile mountains. 1992. 
  9. ^ Montpetit, D.; Lalonde, M. In vitro propagation and subsequent nodulation of the actinorhizal Hippophae rhamnoides L.. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture. 1988, 15 (3): 189–199. ISSN 0167-6857. doi:10.1007/BF00033643 (英语). 

外部連結编辑