沙苏人

沙苏人 (Shasu,古埃及文转写 š3sw,读音可能是Shaswe[1]) 是青铜时代晚期到铁器时代早期或古埃及第三中间时期,南黎凡特地区讲闪米特语游牧民族,一群由部落酋长领导的社会组织,被描述为活跃在耶斯列谷亚实基伦西奈半岛一带的强盗[2]

马迪纳特·哈布神庙(Madinat Habu)拉美西斯三世浮雕中描绘的沙苏囚俘

一些学者将以色列人四字神名与沙苏人联系在一起。

词源编辑

该名字的词根可能源自埃及语 š3sw,原意是“步行者”,利维(Levy)、亚当斯(Adams)和穆尼兹等都曾发表了相似的观点,即古埃及语中表示“流浪”一词的意思,对应在闪族语中则是“掠夺”的意思[3]

历史编辑

已知最早提到沙苏人的是公元前15世纪的外约旦区人名单,该名字出现在阿蒙霍特普三世修建的索莱布神庙(temple of Soleb)柱基的埃及之敌名单中。 公元前13世纪后期,塞提一世拉美西斯三世努比亚阿马拉西部(Amarah West)又抄录了一份埃及之敌名单,其中提到了六组沙苏人:S'rr 沙苏人、Rbn 沙苏人、Sm't 沙苏人、Wrbr 沙苏人、Yhw 沙苏人和 Pysps 沙苏人[4][5]

雅赫维的沙苏人编辑

 
埃及人在殴打沙苏奸细(卡迭石战役墙雕细部)

有两份古埃及文书,一份是阿蒙霍特普三世时期(公元前14世纪),另一份是拉美西斯二世时代(公元前13世纪),都提到了“雅胡的沙苏人之地” (t3 š3św yhw[6]),其中“yhw[3]/Yahu”(雅赫维/雅胡)是都一地名

tAM8M23wiihV4G1N25
 圣书体     名词     读音 含意
tA
N16 ta ("land") 长谷物的土地
M8
M8 ša 莲花池
M23
M23 sw 莎草
w
w w 鹌鹑
ii
y y 一对芦苇
h
h h 芦苇棚
V4
V4 wa 套索
G1
G1 3 [a] 白兀鹫
N25
N25 三座山丘

迈克尔·阿斯图尔(Michael Astour)注意到“yhw3”这一“象形字的表现非常精确地对应了希伯来语四字神名雅威,而且该名字比迄今为止出现在米沙石碑上最古老的神名还要早500多年”[7]。范德图恩(K. Van Der Toorn) 总结道 :“公元前14世纪,在雅威崇拜抵达希伯来前,以东人米甸人就成群结队地将雅威奉为他们的主神了[8]

加拿大埃及学家唐纳德·布·雷德福(Donald B. Redford)曾认为,最早的希伯来人,就是公元前13世纪末麦伦普塔赫石碑上所提到的巴勒斯坦中部半游牧高地人,被认为就是生活在一处沙苏飞地上,由此后来圣经传统上才将耶和华讲述为“出自西珥(Seʿir)”[9]。沙苏人最初是来自摩押人和北方的以东/西珥人,随后在"希伯来"联合体中构成了主要部分,并在以后建立起了希伯来王国[10]。根据对阿马尔奈文书的分析,特拉维夫大学古代近东文化和闪米特语言学名誉教授安森·弗兰克·雷尼(Anson Rainey)得出结论说:有关沙苏人的描述最符合早期的希伯来人[11]。 如果这一认定是正确的,这些希伯来/沙苏人就应定居在高地小村庄中,其房屋类似于公元前13世纪末同时期的迦南人样式[12]

鉴于麦伦普塔赫浮雕上已确定为与希伯来人有关的一组人像并未描述是否为沙苏人(参见麦伦普塔赫石碑之卡纳克浮雕),因此,对希伯来人与沙苏人之间的联系存在异议。古埃及人通常使用限指某一地方,而非某类人的象形文字来表达沙苏人[13];“仇敌沙苏”最常见的称谓是某山地之国[14]。因而,他们与防守亚实基伦(Ashkelon)、基色(Gezer)和耶诺姆(Yenoam)等城堡的迦南人以及被认作是一民族的希伯来人并非相同一族[15][16],虽然沙苏人并非是一个族群,但学者们指出,埃及书记员们倾向于把“完全不同的群体捆在一种人为统一的称谓中”[17][18]

弗兰克·杰·尤尔科(Frank J. Yurco)和迈克尔·格·哈塞尔(Michael G. Hasel)曾根据穿着服饰和发式的不同,将麦伦普塔赫浮雕中的沙苏人与希伯来人区分开来,且与埃及书写者的判定不同[19]美国考古学家伦斯·斯塔格(Lawrence Stager)也反对麦伦普塔赫石碑中的沙苏人与希伯来人有关联,因为沙苏人的衣着与希伯来人不同,希伯来人的衣着发式都像迦南人[20][21]

然而,限定词的用法受到了质疑;有人指出,在埃及著作中,包括麦伦普塔赫石碑在内,限定词被随意使用[22]。此外,山地限定词并不总是用于沙苏,像来自索莱布和阿玛拉西部的“雅赫维的沙苏(Shasu of Yhw)”名字指环就是这种情况。戈斯塔·沃纳·阿赫斯特伦(Gösta Werner Ahlström)反驳了斯塔格的反对意见,他认为,对比描绘是因为沙苏人是游牧民,而希伯来人已定居。他补充说:“后来定居在山中的沙苏人之所以被称为希伯来人,是因为他们定居在希伯来领土上”[21]

另请参阅编辑

参考资料编辑

内部链接编辑

  1. ^ Donald B. Redford (1992), p. 271.
  2. ^ Miller (2005), p.95
  3. ^ Levy, Adams, and Muniz, p. 66
  4. ^ Sivertsen (2009), p. 118
  5. ^ Hasel (1998), p. 219
  6. ^ Horn, Siegfried - (1953). "Jericho in a Topographical List of Ramesses II", Journal of Near Eastern Studies 12: 201-203.
  7. ^ Astour (1979), p. 18
  8. ^ K. Van Der Toorn, p. 282-283
  9. ^ Book of Judges, 5:4 and Deuteronomy, 33:2
  10. ^ Donald B. Redford (1992), p. 272–3,275.
  11. ^ Rainey (2008)
  12. ^ Shasu, in Ian Shaw, Robert Jameson (eds) Dictionary of Archaeology, John Wiley & Sons, 2008 p.313.
  13. ^ Dermot Anthony Nestor, p.185.
  14. ^ Hasel (2003), p. 32–33
  15. ^ Stager (2001), p. 92
  16. ^ Kenton L. Sparks, p.108
  17. ^ Nestor, p.186.
  18. ^ Sparks, p. 105−106
  19. ^ Yurco (1986), p. 195, 207; Hasel (2003), p. 27–36.
  20. ^ Stager (2001), p. 92
  21. ^ 21.0 21.1 Ahlström, pp. 277–278, note 7
  22. ^ Miller (2012), p. 94

引用来源编辑

  • Ahlström, Gösta Werner. The History of Ancient Palestine. Fortress Press. 1993. ISBN 978-0-8006-2770-6. 
  • Astour, Michael C. (1979). "Yahweh in Egyptian Topographic Lists." In Festschrift Elmar Edel, eds. M. Gorg & E. Pusch, Bamberg.
  • Dever, William G. (1997). "Archaeology and the Emergence of Early Israel" . In John R. Bartlett (Ed.), Archaeology and Biblical Interpretation, pp. 20–50. Routledge.
  • Hasel, Michael G. (1994). "Israel in the Merneptah Stela," Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 296, pp. 45–61.
  • Hasel, Michael G. (1998). Domination and Resistance: Egyptian Military Activity in the Southern Levant, 1300–1185 BC. Probleme der Ägyptologie 11. Leiden: Brill, pp. 217–239. ISBN 90-04-10984-6 [1]
  • Hasel, Michael G. (2003). "Merenptah's Inscription and Reliefs and the Origin of Israel" in Beth Alpert Nakhai ed. The Near East in the Southwest: Essays in Honor of William G. Dever, pp. 19–44. Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 58. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research. ISBN 0-89757-065-0
  • Hoffmeier, James K. (2005). Ancient Israel in Sinai, New York: Oxford University Press, 240–45.
  • Horn, Siegfried H. (1953). "Jericho in a Topographical List of Ramesses II," Journal of Near Eastern Studies 12: 201–203.
  • Levy, Thomas E.; Adams, Russell B.; Muniz, Adolfo. Archaeology and the Shasu Nomads. Richard Elliott Friedman; William Henry Propp (编). Le-David Maskil: A Birthday Tribute for David Noel Freedman. Eisenbrauns. January 2004: 66–. ISBN 978-1-57506-084-2. 
  • MacDonald, Burton (1994). "Early Edom: The Relation between the Literary and Archaeological Evidence". In Michael D. Coogan, J. Cheryl Exum, Lawrence Stager (Eds.), Scripture and Other Artifacts: Essays on the Bible and Archaeology in Honor of Philip J. King, pp. 230–246. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-22364-8
  • Miller (II.), Robert D. Chieftains of the Highland Clans: A History of Israel in the 12th and 11th Centuries B.C., Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2005, Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2012
  • Nestor, Dermot Anthony, Cognitive Perspectives on Israelite Identity, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2010
  • Rainey, Anson (2008). "Shasu or Habiru. Who Were the Early Israelites?" Biblical Archaeology Review 34:6 (Nov/Dec).
  • Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan and Israel In Ancient Times. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1992. ISBN 0-691-00086-7.  已忽略未知参数|url-access= (帮助)
  • Sivertsen, Barbara J. The Parting of the Sea: How Volcanoes, Earthquakes, and Plagues Shaped the Story of Exodus. Princeton University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-691-13770-4 [2]
  • Sparks, Kenton L., Ethnicity and Identity in Ancient Israel: Prolegomena to the Study of Ethnic Sentiments and Their Expression in the Hebrew Bible, Eisenbrauns, 1998, p. 108: 'If the Egyptian scribe was not clear on the nature of the entity he called "Israel," knowing only that it was "different" from the surrounding modalities, then we can imagine something other than a sociocultural Israel. It is possible that Israel repr esented a confederation of united, but sociologically distinct, modalities that were joined either culturally or politically via treaties and the like. This interpretation of the evidence would allow for the unity implied by the endonymic evidence and also give our scribe some latitude in his use of the determinative'.
  • Stager, Lawrence E. (2001). "Forging an Identity: The Emergence of Ancient Israel". In Michael Coogan (Ed.), The Oxford History of the Biblical World, pp. 90–129. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508707-0
  • van der Toorn, K. (1996). Family Religion in Babylonia, Ugarit and Israel: Continuity and Changes in the Forms of Religious Life (BRILL)
  • Yurco, Frank J. (1986). "Merenptah's Canaanite Campaign." Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 23:189–215.