波斯文学

波斯文学波斯語ادبیات فارسیadabiyāt-e fārsi)包括由波斯语转述、写作而成的文字作品,是世界上最为古老的文学之一。[1][2][3]它绵延了两千五百余年,但许多伊朗歷史相关的作品如今卻已经失传。波斯文学作品的创作题材来自于大伊朗地区,范围包括今天的伊朗伊拉克高加索土耳其,以及波斯语曾为官方语言或本土语言的部分南亚等地区。

五卷书波斯语手稿可追溯至公元1429年,描述了狐狸想骗狮子走弯路的故事。现藏于土耳其伊斯坦堡托卡比皇宮博物馆
列王紀》中的一个场景,描绘了鲁斯坦姆英语Rostam的英勇气概。

波斯諺語舉例编辑

波斯諺語
* Thousands of friends aren't sufficient and one enemy one too many. *
  • 敵人一個就嫌太多,滿坑古的朋友還是嫌太少。
هزاران دوست کم‌اند و یک دشمن زیاد

Hezārān dūst kam-and-o [va] yek doshman ziād.

* The wise enemy is better than the ignorant friend. *
  • 狡獪敵人勝過無知的朋友。
دشمن دانا بهتر از دوست نادان است

Doshman-e dānā beh'tar az dust-e nādān ast./

* The wise enemy lifts you up, the ignorant friend casts you down. *
  • 狡獪的敵人逼你精神大作,無知的朋友讓你心智消沉。
دشمن دانا بلندت می‌کند. بر زمینت میزند نادان‌دوست

Doshman-e dānā bolandat mikonad. Bar zaminat mizanad nādān-dūst.

* There is no dead in the grave, on top of which you're crying! (equivalent to "barking up the wrong tree" ) *
  • 明明墳墓裡沒有死人,你在墳上卻哭得興起!(相當於“搞錯了方向”)
در قبری که بالایش می گریی، مرده نیست

Dar qabrī ke bālāyash mīger'yī morde nīst

参考资料编辑

  1. ^ Spooner, Brian. Dari, Farsi, and Tojiki. Marashi, Mehdi (编). Persian Studies in North America: Studies in Honor of Mohammad Ali Jazayery. Leiden: Brill. 1994: 177–178 [2017-06-18]. (原始内容存档于2020-07-14). 
  2. ^ Spooner, Brian. Dari, Farsi, and Tojiki. Schiffman, Harold (编). Language policy and language conflict in Afghanistan and its neighbors: the changing politics of language choice. Leiden: Brill. 2012: 94 [2017-06-18]. (原始内容存档于2021-03-10). 
  3. ^ Campbell, George L.; King, Gareth (编). Persian. Compendium of the World's Languages 3rd. Routledge. 2013: 1339 [2017-06-18]. (原始内容存档于2021-03-10). 

參考文獻编辑

延伸閱讀编辑

  • ʻAbd al-Ḥusayn Zarrīnʹkūb. Dū qarn sukūt: sarguz̲asht-i ḥavādis̲ va awz̤āʻ-i tārīkhī dar dū qarn-i avval-i Islām (Two Centuries of Silence). Tihrān: Sukhan. 2000. OCLC 46632917. ISBN 964-5983-33-6. 
  • Aryanpur, Manoochehr. A History of Persian Literature. Tehran: Kayhan Press, 1973
  • Chopra, R.M., "Eminent Poetesses of Persian", Iran Society, Kolkata, 2010.
  • Chopra, R.M., "The Rise Growth And Decline of Indo-Persian Literature", 2012, published by Iran Culture House, New Delhi and Iran Society, Kolkata. Revised edition published in 2013.
  • Zellem, Edward. Zarbul Masalha: 151 Afghan Dari Proverbs. Charleston: CreateSpace, 2012. [2022-01-07]. (原始内容存档于2014-12-31). 
  • Clawson, Patrick. Eternal Iran页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆. Macmillan, 2005. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6.
  • Browne, E.G.. Literary History of Persia 1998. ISBN 0-7007-0406-X.
  • Browne, Edward G.. Islamic Medicine. 2002. ISBN 81-87570-19-9
  • Rypka, Jan. History of Iranian Literature. Reidel Publishing Company, 1968. OCLC 460598. ISBN 90-277-0143-1.
  • Schimmel, Annemarie (1992). A Two-colored Brocade: The Imagery of Persian Poetry页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆. University of North Carolina Press, USA. ISBN 1469616378.
  • Tikku, G.L. Persian Poetry in Kashmir. 1971. ISBN 0-520-09312-7
  • Walker, Benjamin. Persian Pageant: A Cultural History of Iran. Calcutta: Arya Press, 1950.
  • Zellem, Edward. Afghan Proverbs Illustrated. Charleston: CreateSpace, 2012. [2022-01-07]. (原始内容存档于2014-12-31). 
  • Chopra, R.M., "Great Poets of Classical Persian", 2014, Sparrow Publication, Kolkata, ISBN 978-81-89140-99-1.

外部連結编辑

template:Persian literature英语template:Persian literature template:Shahnameh英语template:Shahnameh template:Poetry of different cultures and languages英语template:Poetry of different cultures and languages literature英语template:Asian topic