流浪的猶太人

流浪的猶太人(wandering Jew、徘徊的猶太人)是一個神話裡长生不老的人,流浪的猶太人這個传说在13世紀開始在欧洲傳播。[1]

古斯塔夫·多雷所繪的流浪的猶太人

原來的傳說是關於一個猶太人在向正被羅馬軍隊押往各各他刑場釘十字架路上走的耶穌嘲弄,然後這位猶太人被詛咒在塵世行走,直到耶稣再临。這位流浪者的輕率行為性質的確在不同版本的故事中是有所不同,正如他所表現出來的品格特質一樣;有時他被說成是補鞋英语Shoemaking匠或者是其他的匠人,有時候他被說成是當時駐猶太地區的羅馬帝國總督本丟·彼拉多總督府的一名猶太人門衛。

名字编辑

流浪的猶太人最早出現在在溫多弗的羅傑英语Roger of Wendover所著的《弗洛爾斯史英语Flores Historiarum》的1228年的手稿中。《弗洛爾斯史》有個子章《Of the Jew Joseph who is still alive awaiting the last coming of Christ[2][3][4],在這個章節中的中心人物約瑟夫,在領受亞拿尼亞的洗禮前名字叫Cartaphilus。Cartaphilus的詞根為kartos和philos,分別有「親愛的」和「所愛的」的意思。換言之,在早期,流浪的猶太人的傳說是被和耶穌所愛的門徒做連結的[5]

至少在17世紀初期,有人以Ahasver來稱呼流浪的猶太人。這名字顯然是源自於以斯帖記中的波斯國王——亞哈隨魯。可能是因為猶太人散居於各國家的狀態與以斯帖記時期猶太人分散於波斯帝國各省分的狀態類似所以才以此命名[6]


大眾文化编辑

註釋编辑

  1. ^ as described in the first chapter of Curious Myths of the Middle Ages where Sabine Baring-Gould attributed the earliest extant mention of the myth of the Wandering Jew to Matthew Paris. The chapter began with a reference to Gustave Doré's series of twelve illustrations to the legend, and ended with a sentence remarking that, while the original legend was so 'noble in its severe simplicity' that few could develop it with success in poetry or otherwise, Doré had produced in this series 'at once a poem, a romance, and a chef-d'oeuvre of art'. First published in two parts in 1866 and 1868, the work was republished in 1877 and in many other editions.[1]
  2. ^ Wendover, Roger of. De Joseph, qui ultimum Christi adventum adhuc vivus exspectat. 1849: 175 (拉丁语). 
  3. ^ Roger of Wendover's Flowers of History. Volume 4. H. G. Bohn. 1842. 
  4. ^ Jacobs 1911,第362頁
  5. ^ Anderson, George K. "The Beginnings of the Legend". The Legend of the Wandering Jew, Brown UP, 1965, pp. 11-37.
  6. ^ Ahasver, Ahasverus, Wandering Jew—People—Virtual Shtetl. [16 January 2016]. (原始内容存档于12 January 2016). 

參考文獻编辑

  • Anderson, George K. The Legend of the Wandering Jew. Providence: Brown University Press, 1965. xi, 489 p.; reprint edition ISBN 0-87451-547-5 Collects both literary versions and folk versions.
  • Camilla Rockwood (编). Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable 18th. Edinburgh: Chambers Harrap. 2009: 1400. ISBN 9780550104113. 
  • Hasan-Rokem, Galit and Alan Dundes The Wandering Jew: Essays in the Interpretation of a Christian Legend (Bloomington:Indiana University Press) 1986. 20th-century folkloristic renderings.
  • Manning, Robert Douglas Wandering Jew and Wandering Jewess ISBN 978-1-895507-90-4
  • Gaer, Joseph (Fishman) The Legend of the Wandering Jew New American Library, 1961 (Dore illustrations) popular account.
  • Richard I. Cohen, "The "Wandering Jew" from Medieval Legend to Modern Metaphor," in Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett and Jonathan Karp (eds), The Art of Being Jewish in Modern Times (Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007) (Jewish Culture and Contexts),

參見编辑

外部連接编辑