打开主菜单

玉螺科

新腹足目的一個科
玉螺科
化石时期:晚侏羅世–現在[1]
Natica hebraea.jpg
A live individual of Naticarius hebraeus (Martyn, 1786), viewed from the front
科学分类 编辑
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 軟體動物門 Mollusca
纲: 腹足纲 Gastropoda
目: 玉黍螺類 Littorinimorpha
总科: 玉螺總科 Naticoidea
科: 玉螺科 Naticidae
Guilding, 1834
多样性[1]
260–270個現生種

玉螺科(學名:Naticidae)是一個微小到大型捕食性海螺的一個,都是玉黍螺類支序的海洋腹足綱軟體動物。本科物種的螺殼大多呈球體狀(包括有:圓球形卵球形耳形[2])。其物種可食用[3]

玉螺科是玉螺總科的唯一一個分類單元。

分佈及多樣性编辑

現時世上估計有約260到270個現生的玉螺科物種[1]。這些物種估計最早出現於三疊紀後期或侏羅紀早期[1],其螺殼的獨特型態或捕食行為都可將牠們與其他物種分辨過[1]

本科物種廣泛分佈於全世界。無論是在物種的數量以至到屬的數量,玉螺科的多樣性在熱帶地區都很高;即使如此,本科物種亦廣泛分佈於溫帶及北極的水域[1]

棲息地编辑

本科物種皆棲息於沙質 substrates, at a great variety of depths depending on the species (from the intertidal zone to thousands of meters in depth)[1]。They are often seen ploughing along in the sand searching for prey.

習性编辑

50-second video of snails (most likely Natica chemnitzi and Cerithium muscarum) feeding on the sea floor in the Gulf of California, Puerto Peñasco, Mexico.
 
Naticid boring in Stewartia from the Calvert Formation, Zone 10, Calvert Co., MD (Miocene).
 
A moon snail (Naticarius orientalis) on the prowl at night. Found on the north coast of East Timor.
 
A fossil shell of Naticarius millepunctatus from the Nicosia Formation, Pliocene, Cyprus

玉螺科物種皆為掠食性的,主要的捕食對象為雙殼類。牠們還會攻擊幾乎所有在沙上遇到的其他貝類軟體動物,例如掘足纲或其他腹足類物種,包括其他玉螺科物種[1]。此外,Conuber sordidum會透過在长腕和尚蟹Mictyris longicarpus)的頭胸甲上鑽孔而捕食牠們[4][1][5]。而為了捕捉這些沙蟹類物種,玉螺科物種會採取與捕獵其牠有殻的軟體動物相同的策略[5]

玉螺會先將獵物包圍,然後以其齒舌及酸性分泌物在其獵物的殼中「融溶」出一個洞。一但這個殻鑽開了,就把口器伸進洞裡吃掉獵物的肉。The hole in the shell, which has a "countersunk" appearance with chamfered edges, and which varies in size according to the species, is a characteristic diagnostic sign of moon snail predation.

In the breeding season, the female moon snail lays a rather stiff egg mass which includes sand and mucus. These objects wash up on sandy beaches fairly often, and are known by the common name "sand collars" because of their resemblance to an old-fashioned removable shirt collar or false-collar.

分類學编辑

傳統分類编辑

玉螺科原是凤螺总科的成員[6],後來獨立出來成為獨自一個總科。 傳統上,部分學者按將本科物種分作下列四個亞科[7][2]

這種分類主要是從形態學的角度去分類,包括有[8][9][7][10]

  • 口蓋英语Operculum (gastropod)的特質:玉螺亞科物種均為鈣質,而Polinicinae及Sininae均為角質但厚薄或相對殻口的大小不同[2]
  • 螺殼的形態,例如:形狀、螺溝等。

2005年分類编辑

根據2005年的《布歇特和洛克羅伊的腹足類分類》,本科物種可分為下列四個亞科[11]

2017年分類编辑

根據2017年的《布歇特和洛克羅伊的腹足類分類》,這四個亞科的分類不變[12]

亞科與屬编辑

截至2018年4月11日 (2018-04-11),玉螺科在WoRMS的紀錄包括下列各亞科與屬:

未有屬於任何亞科

玉螺亞科 Naticinae Guilding, 1834

Subfamily Globisininae Powell, 1933

無臍玉螺亞科 Polinicinae Gray, 1847:其物種原為玉螺亞科成員。

  • » Genus Amauropsis Mörch, 1857
  • » Genus Bulbus T. Brown, 1839
  • » Genus Conuber Finlay & Marwick, 1937
  • » Genus Euspira Agassiz, 1837
  • » Genus Friginatica Hedley, 1916
  • » Genus Glossaulax Pilsbry, 1929
  • » Genus Hypterita Woodring, 1957
  • » Genus Kerguelenatica Powell, 1951
  • » Genus Mammilla Schumacher, 1817
  • » Genus Neverita Risso, 1826
  • 無臍玉螺屬 Polinices Montfort, 1810
  • » Genus Pseudopolinices Golikov & Sirenko, 1983
  • » Genus Sinuber Powell, 1951
  • » Genus Tahunacca Maxwell, 1992 †
  • » Genus Uberella Finlay, 1928
  • » Genus Acrybia H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 accepted as Bulbus T. Brown, 1839
  • » Genus Albula Röding, 1798 accepted as Polinices Montfort, 1810 (Invalid: junior homonym of Albula Osbeck, 1762 [Pisces])
  • » Genus Choristes Carpenter, 1872 accepted as Amauropsis Mörch, 1857
  • » Genus Labellinacca Cossmann, 1919 † accepted as Euspira Agassiz, 1837
  • » Genus Lunatia Gray, 1847 accepted as Euspira Agassiz, 1837
  • » Genus Mamilla accepted as Mammilla Schumacher, 1817 (incorrect spelling of generic name)
  • » Genus Mamillaria Swainson, 1840 accepted as Polinices Montfort, 1810
  • » Genus Mamma H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 accepted as Polinices Montfort, 1810
  • » Genus Mammillaria Herrmannsen, 1847 accepted as Mamillaria Swainson, 1840 accepted as Polinices Montfort, 1810 (Unjustified emendation)
  • » Genus Naticaria Swainson, 1840 accepted as Mammilla Schumacher, 1817
  • » Genus Naticella Swainson, 1840 accepted as Polinices Montfort, 1810
  • » Genus Naticina Guilding, 1834 accepted as Polinices Montfort, 1810
  • » Genus Polynices Herrmannsen, 1847 accepted as Polinices Montfort, 1810 (Invalid: unjustified emendation of Polinices)
  • » Genus Ruma Gray, 1847 accepted as Mammilla Schumacher, 1817
  • » Genus Sulconacca Marwick, 1924 † accepted as Friginatica Hedley, 1916
  • » Genus Uber Philippi, 1853 accepted as Polinices Montfort, 1810

广口玉螺亚科 Sininae Woodring, 1928

  • » Genus Calinaticina J. Q. Burch & Campbell, 1963
  • » Genus Eunaticina P. Fischer, 1885
  • » Genus Gennaeosinum Iredale, 1929
  • » Genus Payraudeautia Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus, 1883
  • » Genus Sigatica Meyer & Aldrich, 1886
  • 广口玉螺属 Sinum Röding, 1798
  • » Genus Catinus Oken, 1835 accepted as Sinum Röding, 1798
  • » Genus Cryptostoma accepted as Cryptostomus Blainville, 1818 accepted as Sinum Röding, 1798 (incorrect subsequent spelling of Cryptostomus)
  • » Genus Cryptostomus Blainville, 1818 accepted as Sinum Röding, 1798
  • » Genus Ectosinum Iredale, 1931 accepted as Sinum Röding, 1798
  • » Genus Heliconatica Dall, 1924 accepted as Eunaticina P. Fischer, 1885
  • » Genus Naticina Gray, 1847 accepted as Eunaticina P. Fischer, 1885 (Invalid: junior homonym of Naticina Guilding, 1834; Eunaticina P. Fischer, 1885 is a replacement name)
  • » Genus Pervisinum Iredale, 1931 accepted as Eunaticina P. Fischer, 1885
  • » Genus Propesinum Iredale, 1924 accepted as Eunaticina P. Fischer, 1885
  • » Genus Sigaretus Lamarck, 1799 accepted as Sinum Röding, 1798

亞科分類未定

subfamily ?

異名
  • Genus Amauropsella Bayle, 1885 accepted as Amauropsona Finlay & Marwick, 1937 † (Invalid: junior objective synonym of Amaurellina)
  • Genus Bensonia Gray, 1847 accepted as Laguncula Benson, 1842
  • Genus Scarlatia Schileyko, 1977 accepted as Laguncula Benson, 1842
  • Genus Uba Fletcher, 1938 † accepted as Uber Philippi, 1853 accepted as Polinices Montfort, 1810 (Incorrect subsequent spelling)

參考文獻编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Huelsken, T.; Marek, C; Schreiber, S; Schmidt, I; Hollmann, M. The Naticidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of Giglio Island (Tuscany, Italy): Shell characters, live animals, and a molecular analysis of egg masses (PDF). Zootaxa (Magnolia Press). 2008, 1770: 1–40 [2010-06-07]. ISSN 1175-5334 (英语). 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 鍾柏生; 賴景陽. 台灣的玉螺. 貝友 (中華民國貝類學會). 1997, 23: 22–31. 
  3. ^ http://www.beike.red/product-item-29.html
  4. ^ Cameron, Ann M. Some aspects of the behaviour of the soldier crab, Mictyris longicarpus. Pacific Science. 1966, 20 (2): 224–234. hdl:10125/7754 (英语). 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Huelsken, T. First evidence of drilling predation by Conuber sordidus (Swainson, 1821) (Gastropoda: Naticidae) on soldier crabs (Crustacea: Mictyridae) (PDF). Molluscan Research. 2011, 31 (2): 125–131 [2018-04-11] (英语). 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 张素萍 (编). 玉螺总科. 中国动物志 无脊椎动物. 第五十六卷 软体动物门 腹足纲 凤螺总科 玉螺总科. 科學出版社. ISBN 9787030473158 (中文(简体)‎). 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Kabat, A.R. The classification of the Naticidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda): Review and analysis of the supraspecific taxa. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 1991, 152: 417–449 (英语). 
  8. ^ Cernohorsky, W.O. The family Naticidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Fiji Islands. Auckland Inst. Mus. 1971, 8: 169–208 (英语). 
  9. ^ Marincovich, L.N. Bulletins of American Paleontology 70: 169–212. 1977 (英语). 
  10. ^ Bandel K. 1999. On the origin of the carnivorous gastropod group Naticoidea (Mollusca) in the Cretaceous with description of some convergent but unrelated groups. Greifswalder Geowissenschaftliche Beiträge, 6, 134-175.
  11. ^ Frýda, J.; Hausdorf, B.; Ponder, W.; Valdés, Á.; Warén, A. Bouchet P.; Rocroi J.-P., 编. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology (Hackenheim, Germany / Ann Arbor, USA: ConchBooks). 2005, 47 (1-2): 397 pp. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997. 
  12. ^ Bouchet, P.; Rocroi, J.P.; Hausdorf, B.; Kaim    , A.; Kano    , Y.; Nützel  , A.; Parkhaev, P.; Schrödl, M.; Strong  , E.E. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia. 2017, 61 (1-2): 1–526. doi:10.4002/040.061.0201 (英语). 
  13. ^ Siemers C. T. & King N. R. (1974). "Macroinvertebrate paleoecology of a transgressive marine sandstone, Cliff House Sandstone (Upper Cretaceous), Chaco Canyon, northwestern New Mexico" PDF.

引用错误:在<references>标签中name属性为“Huelsken et al 2006”的参考文献没有在文中使用
引用错误:在<references>标签中name属性为“Huelsken et al 2011”的参考文献没有在文中使用

引用错误:在<references>标签中name属性为“Majima 1989”的参考文献没有在文中使用

延伸閱讀编辑

  • Powell A. W. B. 1979. New Zealand Mollusca, William Collins Publishers Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand ISBN 0-00-216906-1
  • Ponder W. & Lindberg D. 1997. Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs; an analysis using morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 119: 83-265, London, ISSN 0024-4082.
  • Aronowsky A. Mystery of naticid predation history solved: Evidence from a "living fossil" species: COMMENT. pp E34. Geological Society of America- online. 2003 [2008-06-14]. 
  • Colgan D.J. et al. 2007. Molecular phylogenetics of Caenogastropoda (Gastropoda: Mollusca). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 42, 717-37.
  • Torigoe K. & Inaba A. (2011) Revision on the classification of Recent Naticidae. Bulletin of the Nishinomiya Shell Museum 7: 133 + 15 pp., 4 pls.

外部連結编辑