社會無政府主義


社會無政府主義Social anarchismSocialist anarchism[1]),也稱無政府社會主義Anarcho-socialismAnarchist socialism[2]、社群無政府主義(Communitarian anarchism)[3](可與自由意志社會主義[1]、左派自由意志主義[4]、左派無政府主義[5]交替使用),是用來區分兩大類無政府主義的一種總稱,一類是集體主義,另一類是個人無政府主義。個人主義型式的無政府主義強調個人自治和人類的理性,社會無政府主義者「將個人自由視為與社會平等在概念上的連結,強調社會公眾和互助」。[6] 不同於個人無政府主義著重在私有財產或財物的重要性,社會無政府主義反對私有財產,視為是社會不平等的來源。[7]

社会无政府主义[8][9][10][11][12]作为无政府主义的一个分支,认为个人自由互助英语Mutual aid (organization theory)相联系[13]。其理论强调共同体平等原則是对自主權公民自由的补充,它试图通过在地方分权联邦制中保持言论自由,思想自由和辅助性原则来达到这种平衡。辅助性原则的最佳定义是“一个人不应该超出个人的范围,并向共同体承诺可以通过他们自己拥有的企业和工厂完成工作”并且“每一种社会机构都应该具有向社会成员提供帮助的性质,而不是统治或兼并他们”,最明显地表达这种特征的口号或许是“不要将自治的机构从人们手中夺走。”[13][14]

社会无政府主义一直是无政府主义的主要流派。从术语上讲,强调社群主义合作社主义的社会无政府主义与个人无政府主义形成鲜明对比,同时与后者一样作为无政府主义,反对与集体思维从众行为相关的威权共产主义,这有利于个人社会之间的和谐。同时社会无政府主义通过人民自決工人自治教育英语Anarchism and education赋权并基于反权威的检查和警惕来抵制权威。尽管“检查”这一概念可能显得与无政府主义原则相违背,但实际上无政府主义的检查所指向的是个体对个人自由的捍卫和非强制:DIY的思想方法与社会领域的教育相结合[15]。最重要的是,社会无政府主义还主张将现在和未来的私有生产资料转换成公有制[16][17][18],它认为这么做可以通过更轻松地使用生产资料来保持对个人财产的尊重并通过共享公共资源来保护个人权利[19]

社会无政府主义被认为是一个笼统的术语,因为它通常指代着诸如无政府共产主义集体无政府主义以及互助主义英语Mutualism (economic theory)等概念,有时也可以包括由非国家控制的基爾特社會主義英语guild socialist联盟,基于企业内双重权力的产业民主经济民主英语economic democracy,甚至是主张由工人委员会联盟,工人委员会取代国家并保留大部分基本权利的派系。此外,它还包括无政府工团主义工会理论,Platformism英语Platformismspecifism英语Especifismo的社会斗争策略以及社会生态学。作为一个术语,随着社会无政府主义的语义与发生重叠,在19世纪末与个人无政府主义相区别开后,以无政府共产主义取代“集体无政府主义”成为主要趋势[來源請求]

社会无政府主义属于自由意志主义[20]自由意志社会主义[1]左翼自由主义[21][22]。它在十九世纪末兴起并与个人无政府主义相区别[23]

社会无政府主义被描述为无政府主义的集体主义或共产主义流派,并代表了与社会主义相适应的无政府主义形式,这令其与以个人无政府主义为代表的自由社会主义派形成鲜明对比。[24][25][26][27]但是,一些集体或无政府共产主义者在激进的个人主义理论上建立了他们的理论[28],将集体主义或共产主义视为实现个人自由的最佳社会制度。[29] 个人主义-社会主义之间的区分也受到质疑,因为个人无政府主义在很大程度上是社会主义的,并且相互影响。[26][30]

在美國,「社會無政府主義」是指出版《社會無政府主義》這本刊物的圈子,之後由穆瑞·布克金(Murray Bookchin)所宣揚。布克金將社會無政府主義結合「左派」,他在當中提到了「人類團結的優秀傳統與人性潛力的信念」、國際主義邦聯主義民主精神、反軍國主義和理性的世俗主義。然而,宗教無政府主義和宗教左派則反對左派與「理性世俗主義」的合作,並發起了多次左翼宗教運動,如解放神學民權運動。社會無政府主義致力於「自由結交的人們在自由社區內居住並合作」。[31]

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Ostergaard, Geoffrey. "Anarchism". The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought. Blackwell Publishing. p. 14.
  2. ^ Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph (1893). What is Property?, p. 118
  3. ^ Morris, Christopher W. 1998. An Essay on the Modern State. Cambridge University Press. p. 74
  4. ^ Bookchin, Murray. Social Anarchism Or Lifestyle Anarchism: An Unbridgeable Chasm. AK Press. 1995. 
  5. ^ Thagard, Paul. 2002. Coherence in Thought and Action. MIT Press. p. 153
  6. ^ Suissa, Judith(2001) "Anarchism, Utopias and Philosophy of Education" Journal of Philosophy of Education 35 (4), 627–646. doi:10.1111/1467-9752.00249
  7. ^ Ostergaard, Geoffrey. "Anarchism". A Dictionary of Marxist Thought. Blackwell Publishing, 1991. p. 21.
  8. ^ Baldelli, Giovanni (1971). Social Anarchism 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆. Aldine Atherton. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
  9. ^ Bookchin, Murray (1995). "Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism: An Unbridgeable Chasm" 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆. The Anarchist Library. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
  10. ^ McKay, Iain (18 June 2009). "An Anarchist FAQ" 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆. Stirling: AK Press.
  11. ^ Ehrlich, Howard J. (2013). "The Best of Social Anarchism" 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆. See Sharp Press. Retrieved 31 March 2019. See also his Social Anarchism journal.
  12. ^ Owens, Connor (25 February 2016). "Why "Social" Anarchism?" 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆. The Anarchist Library. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Suissa, Judith (2001). "Anarchism, Utopias and Philosophy of Education". Journal of Philosophy of Education 35 (4). pp. 627–646. doi:10.1111/1467-9752.00249.
  14. ^ Pius XI, Pope (15 May 1931). Quadragesimo anno 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆. §79.
  15. ^ "Misconceptions of Anarchism" 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆. Spunk Library. In Dolgoff, Sam (1986). Fragments: A Memoir. Refract Publications.
  16. ^ Ostergaard, Geoffrey (1991). "Anarchism". A Dictionary of Marxist Thought. Blackwell Publishing. p. 21.
  17. ^ Peacock, Adrian (1999). Two Hundred Pharaohs, Five Billion Slaves. London: Ellipsis.
  18. ^ Goodwin, Barbara (2007). Using Political Ideas. John Wiley & Sons.
  19. ^ Berkman, Alexander (1929). What Is Communist Anarchism? 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆. "The revolution abolishes private ownership of the means of production and distribution, and with it goes capitalistic business. Personal possession remains only in the things you use. Thus, your watch is your own, but the watch factory belongs to the people".
  20. ^ "Anarchism". In Gaus, Gerald F.; D'Agostino, Fred, eds. (2012), more specifically, libertarian socialism. The Routledge Companion to Social and Political Philosophy. p. 227. "In its oldest sense, it is a synonym either for anarchism in general or social anarchism in particular".
  21. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Bookchin 1995的参考文献提供内容
  22. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Routledge p. 227的参考文献提供内容
  23. ^ "An Anarchist FAQ" 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆. "No, far from it. So few anarchists found the individualist solution to the social question or the attempts of some of them to excommunicate social anarchism from the movement convincing".
  24. ^ Boyd, Tony; Harrison, Kevin, eds. (2003). "Marxism and Anarchism". Understanding Political Ideas and Movements. Manchester University Press. p. 251. ISBN 9780719061516.
  25. ^ McKay, Iain (编). Section G – Is Individualist Anarchism Capitalistic?. An Anarchist FAQ II. Stirling: AK Press. 2012. ISBN 9781849351225. 
  26. ^ 26.0 26.1 Franks, Benjamin. Freeden, Michael; Stears, Marc, 编. Anarchism. The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies (Oxford University Press). August 2013: 385–404. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199585977.013.0001. 
  27. ^ Carson, Kevin (2017). "Anarchism and Markets". In Jun, Nathan J. (2017). Brill's Companion to Anarchism and Philosophy. BRILL. p. 81. ISBN 9789004356894.
  28. ^ Baginki, Max (May 1907). "Stirner: The Ego and His Own" 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆. Mother Earth (2: 3). "Modern Communists are more individualistic than Stirner. To them, not merely religion, morality, family and State are spooks, but property also is no more than a spook, in whose name the individual is enslaved — and how enslaved! [...] Communism thus creates a basis for the liberty and Eigenheit of the individual. I am a Communist because I am an Individualist. Fully as heartily the Communists concur with Stirner when he puts the word take in place of demand — that leads to the dissolution of property, to expropriation. Individualism and Communism go hand in hand."; Novatore, Renzo (1924). "Towards the Creative Nothing" 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆; Gray, Christopher (1974). Leaving the Twentieth Century. p. 88; Black, Bob (2010). "Nightmares of Reason" 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆. "[C]ommunism is the final fulfillment of individualism. [...] The apparent contradiction between individualism and communism rests on a misunderstanding of both. [...] Subjectivity is also objective: the individual really is subjective. It is nonsense to speak of "emphatically prioritizing the social over the individual," [...]. You may as well speak of prioritizing the chicken over the egg. Anarchy is a "method of individualization." It aims to combine the greatest individual development with the greatest communal unity".
  29. ^ Kropotkin, Peter (1901). "Communism and Anarchy" Archived 2011-07-29 at WebCite. "Communism is the one which guarantees the greatest amount of individual liberty — provided that the idea that begets the community be Liberty, Anarchy [...]. Communism guarantees economic freedom better than any other form of association, because it can guarantee wellbeing, even luxury, in return for a few hours of work instead of a day's work."; Truda, Dielo (1926). "Organisational Platform of the Libertarian Communists" Archived 2011-07-29 at WebCite. "This other society will be libertarian communism, in which social solidarity and free individuality find their full expression, and in which these two ideas develop in perfect harmony."; "My Perspectives" 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆. Willful Disobedience (2: 12). "I see the dichotomies made between individualism and communism, individual revolt and class struggle, the struggle against human exploitation and the exploitation of nature as false dichotomies and feel that those who accept them are impoverishing their own critique and struggle."; Brown, L. Susan (2002). The Politics of Individualism. Black Rose Books; Brown, L. Susan (2 February 2011). "Does Work Really Work?" 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆.
  30. ^ McKay, Iain (编). An Anarchist FAQ II. Stirling: AK Press. 2012. ISBN 9781849351225. 
  31. ^ http://flag.blackened.net/liberty/miscon.html. [2009-06-20]. (原始内容存档于1998-02-06).  外部链接存在于|title= (帮助)