突触小泡

突觸前神經末梢的分泌細胞器,通常直徑為50納米; 聚集在高濃度的神經遞質中,並通過與突觸前質膜的“活性區”融合而分泌到突觸間隙中

突触小泡Synaptic vesicle)是一种存在于神经细胞突触末端英语Axon terminal的特殊囊泡,内含待释放的神经递质[1]

突触小泡
A-dynamin-1--dynamin-3--and-clathrin-independent-pathway-of-synaptic-vesicle-recycling-mediated-by-elife01621fs001.jpg
图中标为蓝色的小泡为突触小泡
细节
系統神经系统
识别标示
拉丁语vesicula synaptica
MeSHD013572
THH2.00.06.2.00004
解剖学术语

根据估算,人大脑视皮层中突触小泡的平均直径约为39.5±5.1纳米[2]

功能编辑

突触小泡是由神经元细胞体中的高尔基体生成的,之后通过微管网络运输至突触末端英语Axon terminal[3]。当电信号传导至突触末端时,电压门控钙离子通道激活,细胞膜外的钙离子流入突触末端,促使突触小泡与细胞膜融合,释放神经递质[4][5]

参见编辑

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ Ikeda, K; Bekkers, JM. Counting the number of releasable synaptic vesicles in a presynaptic terminal. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009, 106 (8): 2945–50. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.2945I. PMC 2650301. PMID 19202060. doi:10.1073/pnas.0811017106. 
  2. ^ Qu, Lei; Akbergenova, Yulia; Hu, Yunming; Schikorski, Thomas. Synapse-to-synapse variation in mean synaptic vesicle size and its relationship with synaptic morphology and function. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. March 2009, 514 (4): 343–352. doi:10.1002/cne.22007. 
  3. ^ Meriney, Stephen D.; Fanselow, Erika E. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Exocytosis: 155–187. 2019. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-815320-8.00008-9. 
  4. ^ McComas, Alan J. THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION: 27–34. 1977. doi:10.1016/B978-0-407-00058-2.50009-7. 
  5. ^ Kaeser, Pascal S.; Deng, Lunbin; Wang, Yun; Dulubova, Irina; Liu, Xinran; Rizo, Josep; Südhof, Thomas C. RIM Proteins Tether Ca2+ Channels to Presynaptic Active Zones via a Direct PDZ-Domain Interaction. Cell. 2011, 144 (2): 282–295. PMC 3063406. PMID 21241895. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.12.029.