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紧急状态 (印度)

1975年6月25日,印度总理英迪拉·甘地英迪拉·甘地让印度总统法赫鲁丁·阿里·艾哈迈德宣布国家紧急状态

在印度,“ 非常时刻”(the Emergency)是指1975年至1977年的21个月的紧急状态,总理英迪拉·甘地在全国范围内宣布紧急状态。由于普遍存在的“内部骚乱”,法赫德丁·阿里·艾哈迈德总统根据印度宪法第352条宣布的紧急状态从1975年6月25日起生效,直到1977年3月21日撤回为止。赋予总理权力的规定法令,可以暂停选举,并遏制公民自由。在紧急状态的大部分时间里,甘地的大多数政治对手都被监禁,新闻界受到审查。据报道还有其他几起侵犯人权事件,其中包括总理的儿子桑贾伊·甘地带头的的强制大规模绝育活动。紧急状态是印度历史上最有争议的时期之一。

参看编辑

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参考文献编辑

来源编辑

  • Atul Kohli. Democracy and Discontent: India's Growing Crisis of Governability. Cambridge University Press. 1991. ISBN 0-521-39161-X.
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延伸阅读编辑

  • Aaron S. Klieman. "Indira's India: Democracy and Crisis Government", Political Science Quarterly (1981) 96#2 pp. 241–259 in JSTOR
  • Kuldip Nayar. The Judgement: Inside Story of the Emergency in India. 1977. Vikas Publishing House. ISBN 0-7069-0557-1.
  • P. N. Dhar. Indira Gandhi, the "Emergency", and Indian Democracy (2000), 424pp
  • Ramashray Roy and D. L. Sheth. "The 1977 Lok Sabha Election Outcome: The Salience of Changing Voter Alignments Since 1969," Political Science Review (1978), Vol. 17 Issue 3/4, pp. 51–63
  • Shourie, Arun (1984). Mrs Gandhi's second reign. New Delhi: Vikas.
  • Shourie, Arun (1978). Symptoms of fascism. New Delhi: Vikas.

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