緩衝國

敵對國家間的小國

缓冲国(英語:Buffer State)是夹在两个对立的或潜在敌对的强权国家之间的国家,并通过它的存在来避免两国之间的冲突。[1]有的时候缓冲国的地位是由两边的强权所确认的。缓冲国可以有自己的军队,但不允许周边的强权驻军,任何对缓冲国的入侵都可能导致大国之间的战争。

有研究表明,缓冲国和其他非缓冲国相比更容易被入侵。[2]这是因为缓冲国周边存在着大国及强权,地理位置非常凶险。而周围的大国也面对着对缓冲国的控制问题,需要时刻提防缓冲国倒向对手一方,而非缓冲国就不会面对诸如此类问题。[2]

缓冲国通常的特徵便是中立且弱小的,因而靠著其他國家互相制衡來獲得獨立,通常滿足兩大(或三大)強權的利益而作為其獨立的存在,如果某一強權勢衰落則可能無法維持獨立會因而被另一強權併吞,另外緩衝國並不是作为另一个国家的卫星国。在19世纪,中立国例如阿富汗和位于中亚酋长国英国沙俄帝国为了控制通向英属印度的山路而进行的“大博弈”政策的棋子。但亦有例外,如蒙古人民共和國和東歐國家在冷戰時是蘇聯的卫星国,卻扮演著緩衝作用。

缓冲国的例子编辑

美洲编辑

亚洲编辑

非洲编辑

欧洲编辑

参见编辑

参考文献编辑

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  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Fazal, Tanisha M. State Death in the International System. International Organization. 2004-04-01, 58 (2): 311–344. ISSN 1531-5088. S2CID 154693906. doi:10.1017/S0020818304582048. 
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  4. ^ Uruguay - From Insurrection to State Organization, 1820-30. countrystudies.us. [3 March 2017]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-14). 
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  6. ^ Paraguay: Regional Geopolitics and a New President. Stratfor. [3 March 2017] (英语). 
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  9. ^ Sukhankin, Sergey. Russia and the Arctic in an Era of Strategic Competition (PDF). North American and Arctic Defence and Security Network (NAADSN). 2021: 19–49 [8 December 2021]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2021-12-08). 
  10. ^ Nuclear Power at Heart of Russia's Arctic Ambition. BBC News. 22 September 2010 [8 December 2021]. (原始内容存档于2022-05-21). 
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  12. ^ Pholsena, Vatthana. LAOS, From Buffer State to Crossroads. Silkworm Books. 2007. ISBN 978-9749480502. 
  13. ^ Macgregor, John. Through the Buffer State : Travels in Borneo, Siam, Cambodia, Malaya and Burma. White Lotus Co Ltd; 2 edition. 1994. ISBN 978-9748496252. 
  14. ^ Alan Wood, "The Revolution and Civil War in Siberia," in Edward Acton, Vladimir Iu. Cherniaev, and William G. Rosenberg (eds.), Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution, 1914–1921. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1997; pp. 716–717.
  15. ^ George Jackson and Robert Devlin (eds.), Dictionary of the Russian Revolution. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1989; pp. 223–225.
  16. ^ Debarbieux, Bernard; Rudaz, Gilles; Todd, Jane Marie; Price, Martin F. The Mountain: A Political History from the Enlightenment to the Present. University of Chicago Press. 2015-09-10: 150 [2022-05-18]. ISBN 9780226031118. (原始内容存档于2021-10-28) (英语). 
  17. ^ Nepal: Dictated by Geography | World Policy Institute. www.worldpolicy.org. [2016-02-10]. (原始内容存档于2017-08-31). 
  18. ^ The World Today; Bhutan and Sikkim: Two Buffer States Vol. 15, No. 12. Royal Institute of International Affairs. 1959: 492–500. 
  19. ^ Mongolia, the uncontested buffer state. Russia Direct. [3 March 2017]. (原始内容存档于4 February 2019) (英语). 
  20. ^ Cory, Stephen. Reviving the Islamic Caliphate in Early Modern Morocco. Routledge. 2016: 36–37. ISBN 9781317063438. 
  21. ^ THE RUHR: Rhineland Republic?. Time. 27 August 1923 [12 March 2017]. (原始内容存档于2021-09-12).