绿色革命

绿色革命(英語:Green Revolution),或称为第三次农业革命Third Agricultural Revolution),是一组1950年至1960年代末之间的一系列研究技术转让英语technology transfer倡议,1960年代末开始最显着地提高了全世界的农业产量,特别是在发展中国家。[1] 这些举措使新技术得到应用,其中包括谷物的高产品种英语High-yielding varieties(HYVs),特别是矮化小麦和水稻、化肥和农用化学品结合、可控的供水(通常涉及灌溉)和新耕种方法,包括机械化。这些都被视为将取代“传统”技术、被整体采用的“一揽子实践”。[2]

第二次世界大战后,包括杀虫剂和化肥以及新品种的高产作物在内的更多技术的使用大大提高了全球粮食产量。

福特基金会洛克菲勒基金會都参与了绿色革命在墨西哥的最初发展。[3][4]其中一位主要领导人“绿色革命之父”诺曼·博劳格于1970年获得诺贝尔和平奖。他因拯救了超过十亿的饥饿人口而倍受赞誉。其基本方法是开发谷物高产品种,扩大灌溉基础设施,现代化管理技术,向农民分发杂交种子、合成肥料和农药

美国国际开发署(USAID)署长威廉·高德(William S. Gaud)在1968年3月8日的演讲中首次使用了“绿色革命”一词,他提到了新技术的传播:“农业领域中这些及其他的进步包含着一场新的革命。这不是像苏联那样的红色革命,也不是像伊朗国王那样的白色革命。我称之为绿色革命。”[5][6]

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参考文献编辑

引用编辑

  1. ^ Hazell, Peter B.R. The Asian Green Revolution. IFPRI Discussion Paper (Intl Food Policy Res Inst). 2009. GGKEY:HS2UT4LADZD. 
  2. ^ Farmer, B. H. Perspectives on the 'Green Revolution'in South Asia. Modern Asian Studies. 1986, 20 (1): 175–99. doi:10.1017/s0026749x00013627. 
  3. ^ Wright, Angus, "Downslope and North: How Soil Degradation and Synthetic Pesticides Drove the Trajectory of Mexican Agriculture through the Twentieth Century" in Christopher R. Boyer, A Land Between Waters: Environmental Histories of Modern Mexico. Tucson: University of Arizona Press 2012, pp. 22-49.
  4. ^ Gary Toenniessen et al. "Building an alliance for a green revolution in Africa." Annals of the New York academy of sciences 1136.1 (2008): 233–42. online
  5. ^ Gaud, William S. The Green Revolution: Accomplishments and Apprehensions. AgBioWorld. 8 March 1968 [8 August 2011]. (原始内容存档于2016-01-18). 
  6. ^ Marie-Monique Robin, The World According to Monsanto: Pollution, Corruption, and the Control of the World's Food Supply (The New Press, 2010) p. 308 [缺少ISBN]

资料来源编辑

延伸阅读编辑

  • Cotter, Joseph (2003). Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880–2002. Westport, CT: Prager [缺少ISBN]
  • Deb, Debal, "Restoring Rice Biodiversity", Scientific American, vol. 321, no. 4 (October 2019), pp. 54–61. "India originally possessed some 110,000 landraces of rice with diverse and valuable properties. These include enrichment in vital nutrients and the ability to withstand flood, drought, salinity or pest infestations. The Green Revolution covered fields with a few high-yielding varieties, so that roughly 90 percent of the landraces vanished from farmers' collections. High-yielding varieties require expensive inputs. They perform abysmally on marginal farms or in adverse environmental conditions, forcing poor farmers into debt." (p. 54.)
  • Harwood, Andrew (14 June 2013). "Development policy and history: lessons from the Green Revolution" 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆.
  • Jain, H.K. Green revolution: history, impact and future. Houston: Studium Press. 2010. ISBN 978-1441674487.  A brief history, for general readers.

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